• ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT

    Animal improvement refers to the ways of developing and breeding only those animals that show the greatest merit under consideration such as good feed conversion, growth rate, disease resistance and egg size. It also involves the upgrading of existing (local) breeds as a result of some desirable characteristics which they possess.   AIMS OF ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT To produce animals that can give high yield or products in form of meat, egg and milk. To produce animals that can provide high quality of products such as low back-fat thickness, yolk size and shell hardness. To produce animals with high feed conversion efficiency. To produce animals with high growth rate. To produce…

  • MEANING OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    MEANING OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

    Anatomy refers to the form and structure of the body while physiology refers to the functions of the forms and parts of the body. It is very important for the farmer to understand the anatomy and physiology of farm animals because it will enable him to know more about the nutrition, reproduction and management of his animals. The body of farm animals is divided into four major groups. These are: Head. Thoracic cavity. Abdominal cavity. The limbs.   Head: The head is the upper part of the body. The major organs found in the head region include the brain, eyes, ear, tongue and nose. Thoracic Cavity: The thoracic cavity refers…

  • OESTRUS CYCLE, MATING, GESTATION PERIOD, OVULATION, PARTURITION AND FERTILIZATION IN FARM ANIMALS
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    OESTRUS CYCLE, MATING, GESTATION PERIOD, OVULATION, PARTURITION AND FERTILIZATION IN FARM ANIMALS

    OESTRUS CYCLE Oestrus cycle is the interval from the end of one heat period to the beginning of another. It is also the period of “heat” or “oestrus” for coitus or mating. It is followed by a long period in which female animals will not show desire to mate. It is under the influence of hormone called oestrogen. The oestrus cycle varies among farm animals.   Cow (20 – 21 days). Ewe (17 – 21 days). Sow (14 – 28 days). Doe (Goat) – 17 – 21 days. Doe (Rabbit) – spontaneous.   Reasons why oestrus detection is important in farm animals It enables the farmer to know when best…

  • RANGE LAND MANAGEMENT
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    RANGE LAND MANAGEMENT

    A Rangeland is an extensive area of land which contains forage grasses and legumes and other herbage plants where animals like cattle, sheep and goat can graze. The forage plants such as the grasses and legumes used for grazing by the farm animals are called Pasture.   IMPORTANCE OF RANGELAND Rangeland provides food for livestock, especially ruminants. Grasses and legumes in the rangeland, when cut at early flowering stages of growth, can be preserved in the form of hay or silage. Rangeland allows animals to exercise their body. The animals have access to varieties of forage, thus eating balanced feed. Rangeland reduces the cost of feeding animals, especially ruminants. Rangeland…

  • ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY

    Environmental physiology refers to the effects of the environment on the growth and performance of farm animals. Normal growth and performance are enhanced when climatic factors like temperature, rainfall, wind, relative humidity, sunlight, etc are moderate. Excess or lack of these factors definitely will have a negative impact on the growth and overall performance of farm animals.   EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN CLIMATE ON GROWTH Changes in climate have some effects on the growth of farm animals. These effects include: Extremes of either hot or cold conditions is unfavourable and reduces the performance of farm animals. Wind aids the spread of diseases (air borne disease, e.g ., tuberculosis) which cause…

error: Content is protected !!