• OTHER ORGANS OF FARM ANIMALS
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    OTHER ORGANS OF FARM ANIMALS

    The structure and functions of the skin, kidney and liver are discussed below in detail.   Skin The skin of farm animals has been described as the largest organ of the body. It covers the outer surfaces of all animals. The skin is made up of two layers – epidermis and dermis. Epidermis The epidermis is the outermost layer and it is made up of three layers: cornified layer. granular layer. malpighian layer. The cornified layer: It is the outermost layer of the epidermis. It is made up of flat, hard and scaly cells. The cells of cornified layer are dead. The granular layer: This contains the living cells where…

  • CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

    Circulatory system involves all the organs and tissues which are concerned with the movement of materials from one part of the body to another where they are either used or removed. These organs and tissues include the heart, the blood and the blood vessels.   Composition of Blood Blood is a fluid tissue. It is made up of two parts: The fluid plasma and the blood cells or corpuscles. Plasma: Plasma is the liquid portion of the blood. It is made up of water, blood protein like globulin, fibrinogen prothrombin, dissolved mineral salts and other organic substances like hormones, enzymes, digested food and waste products within the body. The blood…

  • SKIN
    BIOLOGY

    SKIN

    The entire surface of the body is covered by skin. In man, the skin is about 1 to 2mm thick except the skin of the palm and soles with thickness of about 6mm. The skin is the most extensive organ in the body. The mammalian skin consists of two major layers: the outer epidermis and inner dermis.   Epidermis This is further divided into three layers known as cornified, granular and malpighian layers.   Cornified layer: This is the upper-most layer of the skin and consists of flat dead cells. Cornified layer protects the body against loss of water and entering of foreign bodies. Granular layer: Contains living cells. It…

  • ORGANISATION OF LIFE
    BIOLOGY

    ORGANISATION OF LIFE

    All living things are highly organised. This organisation occurs in levels. The simplest structures are found at the lowest levels and they interact to build up more complex structures at the next level and so on.   Levels of Organisation of Life There are four levels of organisation of life in organisms. These are the cells, tissues, organs and systems. The simplest of all these levels is the cell.   Cells (First Level) The cell is defined as the smallest unit of living organism. It is the first level of organisation of life. All plants and animals are made up of cells. Some of these plants and animals are made…

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