• HYDROGEN IN CHEMISTRY
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    HYDROGEN IN CHEMISTRY

    Introduction Hydrogen is a chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. It is the lightest and most abundant element in the universe, constituting roughly 75% of its elemental mass. Hydrogen is a nonmetal and…

  • AMMONIUM SALTS
    CHEMISTRY

    AMMONIUM SALTS

    Ammonium salts are prepared by dissolving ammonia in the appropriate acid or neutralising aqueous ammonia with the appropriate acid. The ammonium salts are then separated out of the solution by crystallisation and not by evaporation because they…

  • OXIDES
    CHEMISTRY

    OXIDES

    Oxides are binary compounds formed when elements combine with oxygen. Binary compounds are compounds containing two elements only. Oxides are classified into several groups, namely, acidic oxides, basic oxides, amphoteric oxides, neutral oxides and higher oxides. 1)…

  • IODINE
    CHEMISTRY

    IODINE

    Iodine was discovered in 1812 by Courtois. Iodides occur in minute quantities in sea water. They are also found as organic compounds in some sea weeds and as deposits of sodium (NaIO3)and calcium trioxoiodates (V), (Ca (IO3)2)…

  • GRAPHITE
    CHEMISTRY

    GRAPHITE

    Graphite exists as black, slippery, hexagonal crystals. The carbon atoms in graphite, form flat layers, and are joined together by strong covalent bonds. These layers are arranged in parallel, one above the other, with weak intermolecular forces…

  • INTRODUCTION TO CARBON
    CHEMISTRY

    INTRODUCTION TO CARBON

    Carbon occurs naturally as diamond and graphite. It also occurs in an impure form as coal and in the combined state as carbon (IV) oxide, natural gas, petroleum and wood. Other sources of carbon are mineral deposits…

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