• PROCESSES OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    PROCESSES OF CROP IMPROVEMENT

    The processes of crop improvement include: Introduction. Selection. Breeding or Hybridization.   a) Introduction: This involves the importation of introduction or some varieties of crops with desirable characteristics into areas where they have not existed before. In other words, it involves the movement of crop from its origin or supposed centre of evolution to another region or area where it can adapt. Crops with desired qualities are identified in their centres of origin and then procured. Such crops are then introduced into the breeder’s country for testing and multiplication. Such imported crops are usually quarantined by the nation’s plant quarantine service before introduction into the country importing it. Introduction is…

  • METHODS OF REPLENISHING LOST NUTRIENTS
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    METHODS OF REPLENISHING LOST NUTRIENTS

    Different methods are used by farmers to maintain the fertility of the soil or replace lost nutrients. These methods include: Crop rotation. Organic manuring. Bush fallowing. Cover cropping. Liming. Inorganic manuring or Fertilizers.   a) Crop Rotation Crop rotation is defined as the planting of different types of crops on the same piece of land in a definite sequence. In other words, it is a system of farming whereby different crops are grown on the same piece of land year after year in a definite manner so as to maintain the fertility of the soil. The cycle is planned in such a way as to restore nutrients removed from the…

  • MEANING OF WEEDS
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    MEANING OF WEEDS

    Weed is any plant that grows in a place where it is not expected to grow or a plant which grows out of place. Weed can also be defined as a plant that grows where it is not desired in such a way that it constitutes nuisance either to man, livestock or crops. All farmers have to work hard to prevent their crops from being invaded by weeds. Losses in crop yield due to weeds may be greater than those due to plant pests and diseases. If a farmer fails to control weed growth, the chances of successful crop production are seriously reduced.   EFFECTS/ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF WEEDS The harm…

  • PASTURE AND FORAGE CROPS
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    PASTURE AND FORAGE CROPS

    Pasture is a piece of land on which forage crops or grasses or mixture of grasses and legumes grow. In other words, it refers to an area of land covered with forage crops which are usually grasses and legumes that are grazed or fed on by livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats. Forage crops on the other hand are plants cultivated for their vegetative portions and used in fresh or preserved forms for feeding livestock.   Uses of Forage Crops Forage crops have the following uses: Livestock Feed: Forage crops are usually used for feeding livestock like cattle, sheep and goat. Hay, straw and sillage are prepared from forage…

  • CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS

    Crops can be classified based on: Uses. Life Cycle. Morphology.   CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS BASED ON THEIR USES In this classification, crops are divided into the following categories: Cereal crops: These crops belong to the grass family and they provide carbohydrate, e.g, maize, rice, millet, guinea corn, wheat, barley and oats. Pulses (grain legumes): These crops are rich sources of protein, e.g. cowpea, soyabeans, groundnut, lima bean and pigeon pea. Roots and tuber crops: These crops produce tubers under the ground and they provide carbohydrates, e.g ., cassava, yam, cocoyam, sweet potato, beets and carrot. Vegetable crops: These crops provide vitamins and minerals e.g amaranthus, onion, okra, cauliflower, spinach, bitter…

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