• RULES GOVERNING THE CONVERSION OF DIRECT SPEECH TO INDIRECT SPEECH
    ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

    RULES GOVERNING THE CONVERSION OF DIRECT SPEECH TO INDIRECT SPEECH

    Seven cardinal principles (or changes) governing the conversion of direct speech to the indirect speech are: Verb changes.  Pronoun changes. Adverb changes. Adjective changes. Structural changes. Punctuation/mechanical changes. Vocative changes.   VERB CHANGES a) If the reporting verb in the main (introductory) clause is in the past tense, the other verb(s) in the reported (indirect) speech/dependent clause must also be in the past tense, with corresponding changes in adjectives, adverbs, and pronouns. Examples Direct: He said, ” I am here. “ Indirect: He said that he was there.   b) But if the verb in the direct speech states some general, universal, or habitual truth, it must retain its simple…

  • DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH
    ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

    DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

    Direct Speech refers to the actual words that come out of the mouth of the speaker without any alteration whatsoever. In writing, the direct speech is marked off by quotation marks. E.g. “I am not a fool, ” he retorted. Indirect speech, on the other hand, refers to the new form the direct speech assumes when it is reported by someone else to another person. It is therefore sometimes known as reported speech. This new form is the result of the changes that take place during the conversion. The changes have the effect of making the sense of the original speech remote to reflect the passage of time. It is…

  • INDIRECT RULE IN NIGERIA
    POLITICAL HISTORY

    INDIRECT RULE IN NIGERIA

    Indirect rule refers to the method of governing societies through the use of traditional institutions and personnel. The British adopted this strategy in the management of the affairs of Northern Region. There were many reasons for the adoption of this strategy. The major reason was the high cost of European officials’ salaries, home leave, and retirement benefits. Even a relatively small number of white officials consumed half of Nigeria’s revenue in salaries and pensions. They also consumed much of her foreign exchange. The challenges posed by lack of sufficient resources forces British colonial officials to work through traditional rulers. Indirect rule introduced a new form of alliance between the British…

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