• COMPONENTS OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)
    PRACTICAL GEOGRAPHY

    COMPONENTS OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)

    A working GIS integrates these five key components: hardware, software, data, people and methods. Hardware: Hardware is the computer on which a GIS operates. Today, GIS runs on a wide range of hardware types, from centralized computer servers to desktop computers used in stand-alone or networked configurations. Software: GIS software provides the functions and tools needed to store, analyze and display geographic information. Key software components are: A database management system (DBMS). Tools for the input and manipulation of geographic information. Tools that support geographic query, analysis and visualization. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) for easy access to tools. Data: Maybe the most important component of a GIS is the…

  • GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM DATA
    PRACTICAL GEOGRAPHY

    GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM DATA

    Data input refers to the procedure of automatization of the data and the conversion into forms that can be stored and analyzed in computers. This procedure is fundamental in every GIS and it differentiates depending on the model (vector or raster) and the origin of the data.   SOURCES OF GIS DATA There are many sources of data available for Geographical Information System (GIS). Such sources include the following: Land surveying. Remote sensing. Map digitizing. Map scanning. Field investigation. Tabular data.   Land Surveying: Land surveying is defined as the process by which measurement of land is made and then represent such measurement by tables, plans or layout for specific…

  • BASIC CONCEPTS OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS)
    PRACTICAL GEOGRAPHY

    BASIC CONCEPTS OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS)

    A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. In other words, GIS describes any information system that integrates stores, edits, analyses, shares and displays geographic information for informing decision making. A GIS can be described as a system that provides spatial data entry, management and retrieval, analysis and visualization functions. GIS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries (user-created searches), analyze spatial information, edit data in maps and present the results of all these operations. The acronym GIS is sometimes used for Geographical Information Science or Geospatial Information Studies to refer to the…

  • APPLICATION OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)
    PRACTICAL GEOGRAPHY

    APPLICATION OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)

    The GIS has various applications to which it can be used. These applications include the following: Defence: Geographic Information System (GIS) plays a pivotal role in military operations as they are essentially spatial in nature. The concepts of command, control, communication and coordination in military operations are largely dependent on availability of accurate information in order to arrive at quick decisions for operational orders. In the present digital era, GIS is an excellent tool for military commanders in the operations. The use of GIS applications in defence forces has revolutionized the way in which these forces operate and function. The GIS is popularly useful to the army, navy, police and…

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