• THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA
    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY,  ECONOMIC HISTORY,  WORLD HISTORY

    THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA

    The Europeans had frequented the coasts of West Africa since the fifteenth century and established settlements along the coast in order to facilitate trade, in particular the transatlantic slave trade. There was, however, little interest in driving colonisation inland before the 1870s except in the Cape region (South Africa) and in Algeria that the French had turned into a settler colony, i.e. a colony where waves of European migrants often violently dispossessed the inhabitants of their lands. Forty years later, the situation would be radically different; in 1910, only Liberia and Ethiopia escaped European rule. What were the reasons behind Europe’s Scramble for Africa and why did it happen so…

  • THE SCRAMBLE AND PARTITION OF AFRICA
    WORLD HISTORY

    THE SCRAMBLE AND PARTITION OF AFRICA

    The Scramble and Partition of Africa refers to the invasion, occupation, division, colonization and annexation of Africa territory by European powers in the period between 1881 and 1914. It is also referred to as the Partition of Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa became attractive to Europe’s ruling elites for economic, political and social reasons. In 1870, only 10 percent of Africa was under European control, but by 1914 it had increased to 90 percent of the entire continent, with only Ethiopia (Abyssinia), the Dervish state (present-day Somalia) and Liberia still being independent. The process of owning and controlling African territories by Europeans was initially characterized by unhealthy competition among the invading powers.…

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