There are various career opportunities available for people in the job market, but this book will look at different categories of careers opened to commercial students. This topic will provide useful information for school certificate holders, diploma certificate holders and degree holders about the various opportunities in the public, teaching and private sectors.



There has been increase in quest for job placement in government establishments because of security and good fringe benefits. The salary has become more competitive with those paid by business organisations.

The Federal Government is the largest employer of labour in Nigeria. There are various categories of jobs available for graduates of polytechnics and universities. These include: Budget Analyst, Chief Executive Officer, Higher Executive Officer, Principal Executive Officer, Personnel Officer, Administrative Assistant, Purchasing Officer, Secretary, Director of Finance, Director of Administration, Accountant etc. School certificate holders also may work as Clerical Officers, Secretary Grade IV, Office Assistants, Drivers, Cleaners, etc.

At the state and local government levels, career opportunities are abound for university graduates and diploma holders. They can serve as: health care workers, highway managers, safety control officers, clerks, administrative officers, book keepers, accountants etc. Employees in the civil or public service are referred to as civil servants.



A lot of clerical and management occupations are available in the private sector. These are categorised below as: Marketing and Sales

Many people who have pursued and completed a course of study in commercial studies can be employed in different fields of marketing and sales such as, retailing, wholesaling, transportation, warehousing, communication and research industries. Some of the posts available include:

  1. Research Assistants.
  2. Research Supervisors and Directors.
  3. Sales Analysts.
  4. Agents.
  5. Advertising Client Service Executives.
  6. Managers.
  7. Artists in Advertising Agency.
  8. Salesmen.
  9. Sales Representatives..


Production and Materials Management

Job positions available under production

management are:

  1. Traffic Managers.
  2. Inventory Officers.
  3. Purchasing Agents.
  4. Purchasing Officers and Managers.
  5. Quality Control Analysts.
  6. Industrial Designers.


Financial Area

The environment and work in financial institutions in Nigeria have changed drastically in the last one and half decades. Many new jobs have been created in this area because of the tremendous increase in the number of financial institutions. The various job positions in the financial sector include:

  1. Bank Officers.
  2. Loan Officers.
  3. Accountants.
  4. Cashiers.
  5. Trust Officers.
  6. Investment Bankers.
  7. Financial Analysts.
  8. Treasury Officers.


Management as a Profession

Management has become a profession and as a result, it has become obvious that good management is very important in all kinds of organisations.

There are many types of management positions. These are:

  1. Inventory Control Specialists.
  2. Personnel Officers.
  3. Management Trainees.
  4. Middle Level Managers.
  5. Top Level Managers.
  6. Record and Statistics Officers.
  7. Administration Officers.


Insurance Industry

There are various clerical and executive positions in the insurance industry. For clerical jobs, the usual skills in typing and filing are essential. There are great opportunities for the following:

  1. Claim Examiners.
  2. Underwriters.
  3. Claim Adjusters.
  4. Actuaries.
  5. Agents.
  6. Brokers.


Accounting and Management Information System

The demand for accountants is on the increase owing to the expansion of firms. A good accountant must be a logical thinker. Accounting is a rewarding and challenging profession which provides a great deal of job opportunities for accounting professionals as:

  1. Book Keepers.
  2. Account Clerks.
  3. Accountants.
  4. Auditors.
  5. Tax Consultants.
  6. Financial Managers.
  7. Credit Analysts.
  8. Cost Accountants.
  9. System Analysts.
  10. Data Based Computer Operators.


A rigorous background in mathematics is required to undertake a course of study in accounting and management information system.



There are various opportunities available for people that major in business education in colleges of education, polytechnics and universities. These opportunities exist for education graduates as:

  1. Teachers in secondary schools.
  2. Lecturers in polytechnics.
  3. Lecturers in colleges of education.
  4. Lecturers in the universities.
  5. Professors.
  6. Bursars.
  7. Registrars.


People can be employed as Master Grade I-II, Senior Teachers, Principals, Lecturer I-III, Associate Professors, etc.



(a) Basic Requirements for Unskilled Jobs

All unskilled jobs in the various categories listed above are reserved for holders of first school leaving certificates (primary 6), e.g. messengers, office assistants, etc.


(b) Basic Requirements for Semi-Skilled Jobs

Semi-skilled jobs such as clerical jobs in account, administration, insurance, banking etc are reserved for holders of secondary school certificates and national diploma certificates, depending on grade level.


(c) Basic Requirements for Management Trainee, Top Management or Executive Level

Holders of first degree or Higher National Diploma (HND) are offered appointment for middle level management and holders of second degree for top management level. In the public service, a graduate is employed as a grade level 08 officer.


(d) Commercial Courses

Graduates of the following professions are offered employment in all the career opportunities explained above, depending on one’s area of specialisation, this could be:

  1. Economics.
  2. Insurance.
  3. Management.
  4. Banking.
  5. Finance.
  6. Actuarial Science.
  7. Accounting.
  8. Industrial Relations.
  9. Personnel Management.
  10. Public Administration.
  11. Marketing.
  12. Secretarial Administration.


(e) Professional Examinations

In some of the professions listed above, there is need for higher professional examination to be taken so as to attain top management level in an organisation.

Some of the institutes conducting professional examinations are:

  1. Chartered Institute of Bankers of Nigeria (CIBN).
  2. Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria (ICAN).
  3. Nigerian Institute of Marketing (NIMARK).
  4. Chartered Institute of Taxation.
  5. Nigerian Institute of Management (NIM).
  6. Chartered Institute of Insurance.


All graduates of commercial courses are eligible to sit for the examination of the various institutes listed above. Candidates must have a minimum of five credits, including English, Mathematics and Economics in O’level examination.

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