AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

  • MEANING OF CROP PEST
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    MEANING OF CROP PEST

    A pest can be described as any organism capable of causing damage to crop plant.   Types of Crop Pest Important pests of crop plants are grouped into the following classes: insects birds; rodents; monkeys; man; nematodes.   Insect pests…

  • PROCESSES OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    PROCESSES OF CROP IMPROVEMENT

    The processes of crop improvement include: Introduction. Selection. Breeding or Hybridization.   a) Introduction: This involves the importation of introduction or some varieties of crops with desirable characteristics into areas where they have not existed before. In other words, it…

  • MENDEL’S WORK IN GENETICS
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    MENDEL’S WORK IN GENETICS

    Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) was a monk in an Augustinian monastery in Brunn, Austria. He is often regarded as the father of genetics because his work formed the foundation for scientific study of heredity and variation.   Mendel’s Experiments Gregor Mendel…

  • DEFINITION OF SOME GENETIC TERMS
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    DEFINITION OF SOME GENETIC TERMS

    In order to understand the Mendelian Laws and its usefulness in plant breeding, it is important to know some technical words which we shall come across in crop improvement. Genes: Genes are hereditary units or basic units of inheritance. They…

  • ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT

    Animal improvement refers to the ways of developing and breeding only those animals that show the greatest merit under consideration such as good feed conversion, growth rate, disease resistance and egg size. It also involves the upgrading of existing (local)…

  • FOREST MANAGEMENT
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    FOREST MANAGEMENT

    Forest can be defined as a large area of land covered with trees and bushes, either growing wild or planted for some purposes. Forestry, on the other hand, is the study and management of forests and forest resources. In other…

  • FARM ACCOUNTS AND RECORDS
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    FARM ACCOUNTS AND RECORDS

    MEANING OF FARM ACCOUNTS Farm accounts are statements of money paid out or received for goods and services used in a farming business. Money is received due to sales of farm produce or loans from other sources while money is…

  • PRINCIPLES OF SUPPLY
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    PRINCIPLES OF SUPPLY

    Supply may be defined as the quantity of goods which a producer is willing and ready to offer for sale at a given price over a given period of time. It can also be defined as the ability and willingness…

  • PRINCIPLES OF DEMAND
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    PRINCIPLES OF DEMAND

    In order to know how a market economy works and how resources are allocated in an economic system, it is very important to understand what determines the demand and supply of goods and services.   DEMAND Demand may be defined…

  • GOAT
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    GOAT

    Goat is a hollow horned small ruminant also belonging to the family Bovidae of the genus Capra. Goat is reared for its meat, milk and hide and skin, e.g, morocco leather from Sokoto Red. Goat milk is the richest of…

  • CATTLE
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    CATTLE

    Cattle belongs to the group of animals known as Bovidae. They are ruminants, having hollow horns and hoofs with an even number of toes. Cattle are reared for their meat, milk, hide and skin, manure and as draught animals for…

  • BROODING
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    BROODING

    Rearing Poultry: Rearing is the sum total of all the processes involved in bringing birds to maturity. Rearing of fowl includes: providing suitable housing, feeding and health care for the chicks, growers and adult stock.   Brooding Brooding is the…

  • INCUBATION
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    INCUBATION

    Incubation is the process of providing fertilised eggs with optimum conditions of temperature, relative humidity and ventilation necessary for the development of chicks and their successful hatching.   Types of Incubation There are two types of incubation. These are: 1)…

  • LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT (POULTRY)
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT (POULTRY)

    MEANING OF LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT Livestock management is the rearing of animals and birds in a farm. Poultry refers to group of birds reared for food and other purposes. These include domestic fowl, turkey, goose, guinea fowl and duck. These birds…

  • PIG
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    PIG

    Pigs are non-ruminant animals and they belong to the family called sudae. There are two main species of pigs – Sus sacrofa and Sus vittatus. Breeds of Pig Large White. Large Black. Duroc Jersey. Poland China. Tamworth. West African Dwarf…

  • RABBIT
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    RABBIT

    Rabbits are monogastric or non-ruminant animals. They are medium-sized hopping mammals with long legs, long ears and short tails. Rabbits are mainly reared for their meat. Rabbit meat is normally regarded as a white meat.   Terms Used for Rabbit…

  • OTHER ORGANS OF FARM ANIMALS
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    OTHER ORGANS OF FARM ANIMALS

    The structure and functions of the skin, kidney and liver are discussed below in detail.   Skin The skin of farm animals has been described as the largest organ of the body. It covers the outer surfaces of all animals.…

  • NERVOUS SYSTEM
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    NERVOUS SYSTEM

    The nervous system includes all the organs and tissues which enable animals to respond to changes in their environment. A change in the environment is called a response. The nervous system of mammals is composed of two parts: the central…

  • RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Respiratory system includes all the organs and tissues associated with the exchange of gases between an animal and its environment, leading to the release of energy. The purpose of respiration is to supply oxygen to the cells which oxidise or…

  • CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

    Circulatory system involves all the organs and tissues which are concerned with the movement of materials from one part of the body to another where they are either used or removed. These organs and tissues include the heart, the blood…

  • MEANING OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    MEANING OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

    Anatomy refers to the form and structure of the body while physiology refers to the functions of the forms and parts of the body. It is very important for the farmer to understand the anatomy and physiology of farm animals…

  • MEANING OF ANIMAL NUTRITION
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    MEANING OF ANIMAL NUTRITION

    The food given to farm animals is generally known as livestock feed or simply, feed. Farm animals need feed for growth, repair of worn-out tissues, energy and the general well-being of the animals.   EFFECTS OF FEED SHORTAGE IN ANIMAL…

  • ORGANIC AGRICULTURE
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    ORGANIC AGRICULTURE

    Organic agriculture simply means the use of ruminants and decay of plants and animal by-products to improve agricultural production. In other words, it involves the use of remains of plants and animals to improve the production of crops for improve…

  • NUTRIENT CYCLES
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    NUTRIENT CYCLES

    Nutrient cycles refer to the circulation of certain nutrients like nitrogen, carbon and water in nature.   Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen cycle involves the complex process by which nitrogen is naturally added and removed from the soil. It is a sequence…

  • METHODS OF REPLENISHING LOST NUTRIENTS
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    METHODS OF REPLENISHING LOST NUTRIENTS

    Different methods are used by farmers to maintain the fertility of the soil or replace lost nutrients. These methods include: Crop rotation. Organic manuring. Bush fallowing. Cover cropping. Liming. Inorganic manuring or Fertilizers.   a) Crop Rotation Crop rotation is…

  • PLANT NUTRIENTS
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    PLANT NUTRIENTS

    Plants require nutrients or elements obtained from the soil for good growth and healthy development. These elements or nutrients are classified into two main groups which are: Macro-Nutrients: Macro-nutrients are mineral elements or nutrients required by crops in large quantities.…

  • WHEAT (Triticum spp)
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    WHEAT (Triticum spp)

    Wheat, the most important crop of the world, is harvested some where every month of the year. More hectares of land worldwide are devoted to wheat than any other crop and the world’s total production exceeds that of any other…

  • MEANING OF LIVESTOCK PARASITE
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    MEANING OF LIVESTOCK PARASITE

    A parasite is an organism living in or on another organism called the host. The host is usually bigger and stronger than the parasite. The parasite derives benefits (food) from the host while the host is harmed or injured during…

  • ANIMAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    ANIMAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT

    MEANING OF HEALTH AND DISEASE Health is defined as a state of alertness, freedom from ill-health, accompanied by unhindered growth and productivity of an animal. If an animal’s physiological processes are functioning normally, the farm animal is described as being…

  • SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor)
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor)

    Sorghum is the fifth most important world cereal following wheat, maize, rice and barley. Because of its drought resistance is the choice of drier regions though in recent years maize tends to replace sorghum. It is used as a staple…

  • MILLET (Pennisetum glaucum)
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    MILLET (Pennisetum glaucum)

    Millet is a staple food of millions of people in Nigeria especially in the Sudan-sahelian region; It is highly drought tolerant and gives reasonable yields on infertile sandy soils which would be unsuitable for other important cereals. Millet has only…

  • TRACTOR-COUPLED IMPLEMENTS
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    TRACTOR-COUPLED IMPLEMENTS

    These are implements which are coupled or attached to a tractor in order to enable it to perform its work. Examples of tractor-coupled implements are ploughs, harrows, ridgers, planters, cultivators, harvesters, sprayer, mower, baler, fertilizer applicator and harvester.   A)…

  • FARM MACHINERY AND IMPLEMENTS
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    FARM MACHINERY AND IMPLEMENTS

    Farm machinery includes various types of machines and implements used in the farm. These include tractors, ploughs, harrows, cultivators, ridgers, planters, harvesters, shellers, dryers, sprayers, incubators. The most important implement or machine in the farm, which is used for operating…

  • SIMPLE FARM TOOLS (PART 3)
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    SIMPLE FARM TOOLS (PART 3)

    Emasculator This is an instrument used for castration of some farm animals. It consists of a pair of powerful pincers with plastic or metal handles. The pincers press the neck of the scrotum to crush the spermatic cord which supplies…

  • SIMPLE FARM TOOLS (PART 2)
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    SIMPLE FARM TOOLS (PART 2)

    Axe Axe consists of a strong wooden or metal handle onto which a solid, flat and heavy metal blade with a sharpened edge is inserted. Larger axes are held in both hands when in use. Functions/Uses It is used for…

  • SIMPLE FARM TOOLS (PART 1)
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    SIMPLE FARM TOOLS (PART 1)

    These are simple, handy tools used mainly by peasant farmers. They are designed to help the hands to apply force in farm operations. Some common simple farm tools and their functions are discussed below.   Types of Simple Farm Tools…

  • FARM SURVEYING AND PLANNING
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    FARM SURVEYING AND PLANNING

    Farm surveying is defined as the process of measuring and mapping out the position, topography, size and boundary of an area of farmland. It can also be defined as the process by which measuring of land is made on the…

  • METHODS OF FISH HARVESTING
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    METHODS OF FISH HARVESTING

    Fishing Tools or Gears Examples of fishing tools or gears commonly used to harvest fishes are: cast net. drag net, draw net, or seine net. clap net. set net. trawler with seine net or fishing trawler. fish traps, gill net,…

  • PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION OF FISH
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION OF FISH

    Harvested fish is either consumed, sold or preserved for future use. Fish processing involves the removal of scales, fins, gut and gills. The remaining part is then cooked or fried for eating. By-products of fish processing include: fish meal. fish…

  • FEATURES OF A STANDARD FISH POND
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    FEATURES OF A STANDARD FISH POND

    The essential features of a standard fish pond include: Dam. Core trench. Distribution channel. Spill way. Monk. Boards. Screen. Dam slope (inner and outer). Dam: This is the large area of the pond that holds water. It ensures the availability…

  • AQUACULTURE
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    AQUACULTURE

    Aquaculture is the act of rearing selected species of fish, shrimbs , crabs, etc under scientifically-controlled conditions in enclosed bodies of water such as ponds, streams and rivers where they feed, grow, breed and are harvested for consumption or for…

  • ANIMAL BY-PRODUCTS
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    ANIMAL BY-PRODUCTS

    By-products derived from farm animals include hides and skin, fur, wool, feathers, horns, milk, eggs, meat, tail of animal, bone, blood and manure (dung).   1) HIDES AND SKIN Hides and skin are derived from the skin of cattle, sheep,…

  • MAIN REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES IN FARM ANIMALS
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    MAIN REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES IN FARM ANIMALS

    Hormones are chemical substances which co-ordinate the activities of the body. They are secreted by ductless glands in the body and transferred through the blood to the target organs on which they exert their effects. Hormones . concerned with reproduction…

  • LACTATION IN FARM ANIMALS
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    LACTATION IN FARM ANIMALS

    This is the period during which the female animal releases milk from its udder immediately after parturition and thereafter. The milk is used to feed the young ones. It is under the control of hormone, i.e, decrease in progesterone and…

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