• WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT HYPERCOAGULABLE DISORDERS
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT HYPERCOAGULABLE DISORDERS

    Introduction Hypercoagulable disorders, also known as thrombophilias, are medical conditions characterized by an increased tendency to form blood clots. Blood clotting is a natural process that helps the body to prevent excessive bleeding after injury. However, in people with hypercoagulable…

  • A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF ACUTE LEUKEMIAS
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF ACUTE LEUKEMIAS

    Introduction Acute leukemias are a group of aggressive blood cancers that affect the white blood cells, which are responsible for fighting infections and diseases in the body. There are two main types of acute leukemias: acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and…

  • THE IMPACT OF DRUGS ON ANEMIA TREATMENT
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    THE IMPACT OF DRUGS ON ANEMIA TREATMENT

    Introduction Anemia is a medical condition characterized by a reduced number of red blood cells or a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood, which can cause fatigue, weakness, and other symptoms. The treatment of anemia depends on…

  • THALASSEMIAS AND HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES OVERVIEW
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    THALASSEMIAS AND HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES OVERVIEW

    Introduction Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are two different types of genetic blood disorders that affect the production of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. Thalassemias are a group of inherited blood disorders that affect…

  • ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT ANEMIAS
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT ANEMIAS

    Introduction Anemia is a medical condition in which a person has a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the body’s tissues. This results in reduced oxygen delivery…

  • A GUIDE TO HODGKIN LYMPHOMA
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    A GUIDE TO HODGKIN LYMPHOMA

    Introduction Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, which is part of the body’s immune system. HL is characterized by the presence of abnormal cells called Reed-Sternberg cells in the lymph nodes. The cause…

  • THE SCIENCE BEHIND BLOOD CULTURE TECHNIQUES
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    THE SCIENCE BEHIND BLOOD CULTURE TECHNIQUES

    Introduction Blood culture is a laboratory test used to detect the presence of microorganisms in a person’s blood. It is a critical diagnostic tool for diagnosing bloodstream infections or sepsis, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. There are…

  • A COMPREHENSIVE OVERVIEW OF NEOPLASIA
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    A COMPREHENSIVE OVERVIEW OF NEOPLASIA

    Neoplasia is the abnormal growth of cells that can form a mass or lump, which is called a tumor. Neoplasia can be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Here are some terms commonly used in neoplasia: Neoplasm: An abnormal growth…

  • A COMPREHENSIVE OVERVIEW OF TISSUE REPAIR PROCESS
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    A COMPREHENSIVE OVERVIEW OF TISSUE REPAIR PROCESS

    Introduction Tissue repair is the process by which damaged tissues in the body are repaired and regenerated. The process of tissue repair involves several steps including inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. When tissue damage occurs, the body’s immune system responds by…

  • ELIMINATE YOUR FEARS AND DOUBTS ABOUT INFLAMMATION
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    ELIMINATE YOUR FEARS AND DOUBTS ABOUT INFLAMMATION

    Introduction Inflammation is a natural process by which the body’s immune system responds to injury or infection. It is a complex biological response involving various immune cells, chemical mediators, and signaling pathways. During inflammation, the body’s immune system releases chemical…

  • THE SCIENCE OF CHROMOSOMES
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    THE SCIENCE OF CHROMOSOMES

    Introduction Chromosomes are long, coiled-up molecules of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contain an organism’s genetic information. They are found in the nucleus of every cell in the body of eukaryotic organisms, including humans. Chromosomes are responsible for transmitting genetic information…

  • AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMIOSMOTIC MECHANISM
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMIOSMOTIC MECHANISM

    The chemiosmotic mechanism refers to the process by which cells generate ATP (adenosine triphosphate) through the electron transport chain (ETC) in the inner mitochondrial membrane (in eukaryotes) or the plasma membrane (in prokaryotes). The mechanism was first proposed by Peter…

  • UNCOVERING THE MYSTERIES OF GLUCONEOGENESIS
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    UNCOVERING THE MYSTERIES OF GLUCONEOGENESIS

    Introduction Gluconeogenesis is the process by which the body produces glucose from non-carbohydrate sources such as amino acids, lactate, and glycerol. This process occurs mainly in the liver and to a lesser extent in the kidneys. The process of gluconeogenesis…

  • METABOLIC CONTROL PRINCIPLES
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    METABOLIC CONTROL PRINCIPLES

    Introduction Metabolic control refers to the processes by which cells and organisms regulate their metabolic pathways to maintain energy balance and respond to changes in their environment. There are several principles of metabolic control that are important for understanding how…

  • A BEGINNER’S GUIDE TO UREA SYNTHESIS
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    A BEGINNER’S GUIDE TO UREA SYNTHESIS

    Introduction Urea is a compound that is produced in the liver from excess amino acids and other nitrogenous wastes. The synthesis of urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide is called the urea cycle or the Krebs-Henseleit cycle. The urea cycle…

  • GASTRIC ACID SECRETION AND PEPTIC ULCERATION
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    GASTRIC ACID SECRETION AND PEPTIC ULCERATION

    Introduction Gastric acid secretion plays an important role in the digestive process by breaking down food and activating digestive enzymes. However, excessive acid production can lead to the development of peptic ulcers, which are sores that form in the lining…

  • MIND BLOWING FACTS ABOUT KETOGENESIS AND KETOLYSIS
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    MIND BLOWING FACTS ABOUT KETOGENESIS AND KETOLYSIS

    Introduction Ketogenesis is the process by which the body produces ketone bodies, which are water-soluble molecules made from fatty acids in the liver. The primary ketone bodies produced are acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone. Ketogenesis typically occurs during periods of fasting…

  • UNDERSTANDING THE SCIENCE OF OXYGEN TRANSPORT
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    UNDERSTANDING THE SCIENCE OF OXYGEN TRANSPORT

    Introduction Oxygen transport refers to the process by which oxygen is transported from the lungs, where it is absorbed into the bloodstream, to the body’s tissues, where it is used for cellular respiration. This process involves several steps and components,…

  • PRODUCTION AND PROPAGATION OF WAVES
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    PRODUCTION AND PROPAGATION OF WAVES

    Introduction A wave is a disturbance that travels through space, carrying energy and momentum without the transport of matter. Waves can be produced by a variety of sources, including vibrating objects, changing magnetic fields, or other disturbances in a medium.…

  • SIMPLE IDEAS OF CIRCULAR MOTION
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    SIMPLE IDEAS OF CIRCULAR MOTION

    Introduction Circular motion is a type of motion in which an object moves along a circular path. This type of motion is important in physics, as many objects in nature, such as planets, moons, and electrons, exhibit circular motion. In…

  • THE ADVANCED GUIDE TO GENETICS OF DISEASE
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    THE ADVANCED GUIDE TO GENETICS OF DISEASE

    Introduction Genetics of disease is the study of how genetic variations contribute to the development and progression of various diseases. Our genes contain the instructions that determine our physical and biological traits, and changes or mutations in these genes can…

  • PROTEINS AND AMINO ACIDS
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    PROTEINS AND AMINO ACIDS

    Introduction to proteins Proteins are complex biomolecules that are essential to all living organisms. They are composed of long chains of amino acids that fold into specific three-dimensional structures, giving them unique functions. In chemistry, proteins are studied at the…

  • SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION EXPLANATION
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION EXPLANATION

    Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) is a type of periodic motion where an object oscillates back and forth along a straight line, with the displacement from the equilibrium position being proportional to the restoring force acting on it. Illustration: A simple…

  • PREPARATION OF SOLUTIONS FROM LIQUID SOLUTES
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    PREPARATION OF SOLUTIONS FROM LIQUID SOLUTES

    Introduction The method of dilution is a common technique used to prepare solutions from liquid solutes. It involves adding a solvent, typically water, to a concentrated solution to decrease its concentration and create a more diluted solution. The following steps…

  • ENERGY CHANGES IN SYSTEMS
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    ENERGY CHANGES IN SYSTEMS

    Introduction Energy changes can occur in physical and isolated systems, which refer to different types of systems based on their ability to exchange energy with their surroundings. Let’s look at each of these systems in detail. 1) Physical Systems: Physical…

  • STEROLS IN BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    STEROLS IN BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES

    Introduction Sterols are a class of lipids that have a specific four-ring structure, known as the steroid nucleus. They are important components of cell membranes and play crucial roles in various biological processes such as hormone synthesis, cell signaling, and…

  • EXPERIMENTAL DEMONSTRATION OF  DIFFUSION
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    EXPERIMENTAL DEMONSTRATION OF DIFFUSION

    Introduction Diffusion is the spontaneous movement of particles (atoms, molecules, ions) from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, driven by a natural tendency to achieve equilibrium. In chemistry, diffusion plays an important role in many…

  • CHANGES OF STATE OF MATTER
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    CHANGES OF STATE OF MATTER

    Introduction Matter can exist in three states: solid, liquid, and gas. These states of matter depend on the temperature and pressure of the substance. The changes of state of matter are the processes by which a substance can change from…

  • TYPES OF MOTION
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    TYPES OF MOTION

    Introduction Motion refers to the change in position of an object over time. It can be described mathematically using various formulas, depending on the type of motion being considered. Here are some common formulas for motion: 1) Average Speed: Average…

  • FLUID PRESSURE OVERVIEW
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    FLUID PRESSURE OVERVIEW

    Introduction Pressure in fluids refers to the force per unit area that a fluid exerts on any surface that is in contact with it. It is a scalar quantity and is measured in units of pascals (Pa) or newtons per…

  • MOLE RATIOS EXPLAINED
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    MOLE RATIOS EXPLAINED

    Introduction Mole ratios are a way to describe the proportional relationship between different chemical species in a chemical reaction. Specifically, mole ratios relate the number of moles of one substance involved in a reaction to the number of moles of…

  • SOLID FRICTION EXPLANATION
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    SOLID FRICTION EXPLANATION

    Introduction Solid friction is the force that opposes relative motion between two solid surfaces in contact. It is a phenomenon that occurs at the interface of two solid bodies that are in contact with each other. When a force is…

  • REPRODUCTIVE TRACT DIFFERENTIATION
    GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

    REPRODUCTIVE TRACT DIFFERENTIATION

    Introduction Reproductive tract differentiation and development refer to the complex process by which the reproductive system develops in the embryo and fetus, leading to the formation of either male or female reproductive organs. During embryonic development, the undifferentiated gonads can…

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