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  1. Describe three main differences between Zeugens and Yardang
  • In Zeugen, the hard and soft layers of rocks are arranged in horizontal bands while that of Yardangs are arranged in vertical bands.
  • In Zeugen, there must be lines of fissure which permit wind abrasion to perform its work but in Yardangs, there is no line of fissure.
  • Yardangs are easier to form than Zeugen.


  1. What are the similarities between the lines of latitude and longitude
  • Both are imaginary lines drawn on the globe.
  • Both are measured in degrees.
  • Both are used for the location of places on the map.
  • Both contain great circles.


  1. Describe the characteristics of the following types of landform:

Delta: Delta is formed by the deposition of materials or sediments carried from the upper part of the river to its mouth. Owing to the absence of a strong current, the sediments block the main rivers which cause it to divide into several distributaries which flow into the sea, resulting in a sheltered coast with shallow water The River then flows through these distributaries into the sea.

Characteristics of a Delta

  • The branching of a river into channels called distributaries.
  • Large deposits of weathered materials.
  • It is formed at the mouth of rivers.
  • It takes up the shape of a fan.


Caldera: Caldera is formed when composite volcano explodes violently and its top is blown off and disintegrates into a mass of rocks and ashes, leaving the crater greatly enlarged. The huge crater-like depression is called Caldera. It can also be formed through depression. The depression may result in accumulation of water.

See also  PLATEAUX

Characteristics of Caldera

  • It is formed from volcanic activities.
  • It is a depression on volcano cones with steep sides.
  • Depression of magma gives rise to Caldera.
  • It may contain water called Caldera Lake.



  1. Name the three climatic belts recognized by the Greek system of classification

Torrid Zone

  • This zone is found within the tropics.
  • It is very hot.
  • It has high temperature throughout the year.


Temperate Zone

  • This zone is found between the torrid and frigid zone.
  • It has mild or moderate temperatures.
  • It has seasonal contrasts in temperature.


Frigid Zone

  • This zone is found in the Polar Regions (Arctic and Antarctic).
  • The zone is generally cold with low temperature throughout the year.
  • It has lots of ice-caps in the greater part of the year.


  1. What is the basis of the Koppen’s classification over the Greek system?
  • The basis of the classification is Temperature.


  1. What three advantages have the Koppen’s classification over the Greek system?
  • Koppen’s classification is very simple to understand.
  • It is objective.
  • It is quantitative because numerical values are used in defining boundaries of the climatic groups.
  • Also, it is commonly used in teaching at various levels of education.


  1. Describe five causes of flooding
  • Excessive rainfall in an area.
  • Refuse dumping to block culverts.
  • Poor drainage system.
  • Establishment of settlements along river channels.
  • Erection of buildings on watersheds, roads and culvert sites.
  • Presence of steep slopes.
  • Erection of weak dams and embankments.
  • Inadequate or poor urban planning.


  1. In what four ways can flooding be controlled?
  • Construction of wider gutters and culverts.
  • Avoid refuse dumping in water channels.
  • Proper channelization of floods from city centres.
  • Forest reserves at strategic watersheds.
  • Public enlightenment on effects of flooding.
  • Legislation against indiscriminate dumping and erection of buildings in swampy areas.
  • Construction of dams to act as flood reservoirs.
  • Proper urban planning.
  • Environmental sanitation apparatus should be put in place to ensure proper and timely culvert drainage.


  1. Describe the significance of minerals as an environmental resource
  • Source of fuel: These include coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc. They provide power for domestic and industrial usage. For instance, petrol from petroleum is used as fuel for vehicles and natural gas for cooking.
  • Construction purposes: Some minerals like iron, aluminium, zinc etc. are used for construction e.g. iron ore is the basis for industrial development and construction of bridges, houses etc. Zinc is required for roofing and lead for water and oil pipes.
  • Industrial development: Diamond, iron, copper, silver and graphite are useful for industrial development e.g. diamond is the hardest known metal which is used in cutting other metals; graphite is used in making pencils.
  • Sources of Ornamentals: Some minerals like gold, silver and bronze are used as ornamental wares or jewelries. Gold is said to be the Queen of metals because it is the most valuable metal used in making wrist watches, chains etc.
  • Sources of foreign exchange: Most minerals sold to other countries provide foreign exchange for national development e.g. petroleum in Nigeria.
  • Provision of employment: People who engage in mining of these minerals get jobs as miners, drillers, engineers etc.
  • Provision of basic amenities: Amenities and infrastructure like electricity, pipe borne water, roads, telephone etc. are provided in areas where mining takes place, thereby promoting the development of such places.
  • Provision of raw materials for industries: Various minerals are supplied to industries for the production of various goods e.g. petroleum for the refineries; feldspar for ceramic industry; limestone for cement industry.


  1. Highlight three major problems resulting from the exploitation of mineral resources.
  • Soil erosion.
  • Environmental pollution.
  • Oil spillage.
  • Loss of plants and animals lives.
  • Increased cost of production.
  • Land degradation.
  • Reduction in agricultural and production output.

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