Movements in Hydra 1) Swaying Sometimes Hydra comes to rest on rock or other suitable…
Declension (otherwise known as the inflection of nouns and pronouns) is the change in form of nouns and pronouns to indicate person, number, case; and gender. Specifically, noun declension refers to the change in spelling or appearance of a noun to mark a change in its meaning and usage. Nouns generally inflect for NUMBER, GENDER, and CASE.
A noun is said to be in the singular number when it denotes one person, place, or thing; e.g. boy, cat. But it is said to be in the plural number when it denotes more than one person, place, or thing; e.g. boys, cats. Hence, nouns exhibit two numbers – singular and plural – in English. Singular nouns generally form their plurals by adding ‘S’.
- Some (ending in ch, s, sh, x, z, or in o) add ‘es’.
- Some (ending in f or fe) change to ‘ves’.
- Some (ending in y) change to ies’.
- Some are irregular.
Since there is no single way of forming plurals of nouns, we shall examine the problems of number in the noun under the following headings:
- Regular plurals.
- Irregular/Exceptional plurals
- Foreign plurals
- Compound Nouns and their plurals.
1) Regular Plurals
Many countable nouns form their plurals by adding -s or -es to the singular form (sometimes with a change of the final letter; e.g. – f to -v, – y to -i). Examples:
a) Nouns that form their plurals by adding -s to their singular forms include:
b) Nouns that end in -ch, – sh -x, and some that end in -s or -es, make their plurals by adding -es to the singular.
c) Many nouns that end in -o preceded by a consonant form their plurals by adding -es to the singular form:
d) Twelve nouns ending in -f or fe drop the -f or fe and add -ves. These nouns are:
e) Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant form their plurals by changing the y into -ies. See the following examples:
2) Irregular/Exceptional Plurals:
There are four categories of irregular/exceptional plurals. They are:
- those related to words that end in -o, – f, – fe, and y;
- those that form their plurals by adding -en;
- those that require vowel change to form their plurals, and (d) those that have the same form for both singular and plural.
(a) Words that end in -o, – f/ -fe, and -y:
(i) Some nouns of foreign origin that end in -o preceded by a consonant form their plurals by adding only -s to their singular form:
Similarly, if the -o is preceded by a vowel or a semi-vowel (y,w), the plural is formed by simply adding -s to the singular:
(ii) About seventeen nouns ending in -for -fe form their plurals by simply adding -s to the singular form. These are:
Yet, some nouns (at least four in number) ending in -f form their plurals by taking either -s or -ves. Examples:
(iii) Note that a noun that ends in `-y’, preceded by a vowel, forms its plural by adding `-s’ to the singular form.
(b) Four nouns form their plurals by simply adding -en or -ne to their singular form. They are:
(c) A few nouns form their plurals by a vowel change. They are eight in number:
(d) There are a few nouns, especially of fish and animals, measurements and nationalities that have the same form for the plural as for the singular: