ANIMAL BY-PRODUCTS

By-products derived from farm animals include hides and skin, fur, wool, feathers, horns, milk, eggs, meat, tail of animal, bone, blood and manure (dung).

 

1) HIDES AND SKIN

Hides and skin are derived from the skin of cattle, sheep, goat, pig and rabbit.



Economic Importance of Hides and Skin

  • Hides and skin are processed into leather for the manufacture of bags, shoes, ropes and foot wears.
  • They serve as source of income to farmers.
  • They can be processed into meat, e.g. pormon.
  • They are used in clothing materials, such as jacket.
  • They are also used as ornamentals and other decorative household materials.

 

2) WOOL AND FUR

Wool is the hair derived from sheep while fur is the hair derived from rabbit. These products are found on the body of these farm animals.

Economic Importance of Wool and Fur

  • Wool is used for the manufacture of brushes.
  • It is also used as clothing material like jacket.
  • It can be used in the manufacturing of blankets and rugs.

 

3) HORNS

Horns are derived from animals like cattle, sheep and goat. They are found in the head region of these animals.

Economic Importance of Horns

  • Horns are used industrially as raw materials in knife handles and belt heads.
  • They are used for decorative purposes and as ornamentals.
  • They can be used to make fertilizers because they are rich in calcium and phosphorus.
  • They are also used as feed for livestock because of high level of calcium and phosphorus.
  • Some are used in music and other dance.
  • To the animals, they are used for fighting or defending themselves against enemies.

 

4) MILK

Milk is derived from farm animals like cow (cattle), ewe (sheep), sows (pigs) and doe (goat). The part which produces this milk is the mammary gland or udder. The milk can be extracted from the animals by milking manually (using hands) or mechanically (by the use of milking machines). The milk so derived from these animals can be made fit for consumption by man through a process called pasteurisation.

Economic Importance of Milk

  • Milk is a source of protein in food.
  • It can be used in raising foster calves, lambs or children.
  • It is used in the preparation of baby food.
  • It supplies minerals to livestock.
  • It is used as extender in artificial insemination practices.
  • It is used in the preparation of dairy products such as butter, cheese and yoghurt.

 

5) EGGS

Eggs are mainly produced by poultry birds such as white leghorn, brown leghorn and Rhode Island Red. Others are geese, turkey and guinea fowls.

Economic Importance of Egg

  • Egg is a source of protein in human food or diet.
  • It is used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals.
  • Egg is industrially processed and is used to make paints and vanishes or printer’s ink.
  • Egg is used in the production of adhesives.
  • Egg shells are used in making scouring powder.
  • Egg shell is a source of calcium in poultry feed/animal feed.
  • Egg is used for reproduction.
  • It is also used for manufacturing of vaccines.
  • It is used in cosmetics.

 

6) MEAT

The major product of farm animal is the meat. Meat is derived from all farm animals. Meat has different names depending on the animal from which it is derived.

For examples:

  • Meat of cattle is called beef.
  • Meat of pig is called pork.
  • Meat of sheep is called mutton.
  • Meat of goat is called goat meat.
  • Meat of domestic fowl is called chicken.

Economic Importance of Meat

  • Meat is a source of protein food for man.
  • It is also a protein source for livestock feed e.g. meat meal.
  • It is also used in the making of vaccines and drugs.
  • It provides minerals and vitamins for good health.
  • It is used in pharmaceuticals.
  • It is used in the production of hormones.
  • It is a source of income to farmers and the nation.

 

7) ANIMAL DUNG OR MANURE

Animal dung or manure: Animal dung or manure is produced by all farm animals. The quality of manure produced depends on the animal, age of animal, the nutrition of the animal and physiological state of the feed. The manure of poultry birds is richer than all other farm animals closely followed by the manure of rabbit.

Economic Importance of Manure

  • Animal dung or manure returns nutrients to the soil.
  • It improves the texture and structure of the soil.
  • It encourages the activities of soil organisms.
  • It improves water conservation in the soil.
  • It regulates the temperature fluctuation in the soil.
  • It prevents soil erosion.
  • It has a buffering effect on the soil.

 

8) BONE

Bone is also derived from all farm animals. Reasonable quantity is however obtained from cattle, sheep and goat.

Economic Importance of Bone

  • Bone is crushed and processed as bone meal for livestock feed.
  • It is rich in calcium and phosphorus which aid the development of bones and teeth in man.
  • It can be used in the making of shoes, especially the lower part of the shoe.
  • Vaccines and hormones are synthesized from bone marrow.
  • Bone is useful in the development of egg shell in poultry.

 

9) BLOOD

Blood is also obtained from all farm animals, especially cattle, sheep, goat and pigs. Blood is derived from these animals during slaughtering.

Economic Importance of Blood

  • Blood is processed into blood meal used in livestock feed as a source of protein.
  • It is also rich in vitamins and minerals.
  • It can be used in pharmaceutical industries.
  • Certain hormones can be synthesized from blood.

 

10) FEATHERS

Feathers are found on the body, wings and tail of poultry birds such as domestic fowl, turkey, geese and ducks.

Economic Importance of Feathers

a) To the birds

  • They serve as protection for body.
  • They are used for flight.
  • They keep birds warm.

b) To man

  • For making pillows.
  • For making cushions.
  • For making mattresses.
  • For making dusters.

 

11) TAIL OF ANIMAL WITH HAIR (UNDRESSED)

The tail of animals is found in some farm animals especially cattle, sheep, goat, pig and rabbit. It is most prominent in cattle.

Economic Importance of Tail

a) To man

  • It is a rich source of protein, e.g. cow tail pepper soup.
  • The tail can be used as a whip by man.
  • It is used for some traditional outings in some societies.

b) To the animals

  • It is used for protection, e.g. defence.
  • It is used for driving away flies.
  • It is used for communication (i.e. during stress they wag their tails).

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