• SIMPLE FARM TOOLS (PART 3)
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    SIMPLE FARM TOOLS (PART 3)

    Emasculator This is an instrument used for castration of some farm animals. It consists of a pair of powerful pincers with plastic or metal handles. The pincers press the neck of the scrotum to crush the spermatic cord which supplies blood to the testes. Function / Use The emasculator is used to castrate some farm animals, especially the males, e.g ., bull, ram, doe (goat). Maintenance Practices Keep clean always. Use according to instructions. Employ the service of an expert. Keep in cool, dry place.   Shears The shears are an enlarged pair of scissors or, are scissors like in shape. They possess two long metal blades and two handles…

  • SIMPLE FARM TOOLS (PART 2)
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    SIMPLE FARM TOOLS (PART 2)

    Axe Axe consists of a strong wooden or metal handle onto which a solid, flat and heavy metal blade with a sharpened edge is inserted. Larger axes are held in both hands when in use. Functions/Uses It is used for felling trees. For slicing or splitting wood, For cutting wood, For uprooting stumps. For cutting firewood and logs. Maintenance Practices It should be sharpened regularly. Store in a dry, cool place. Paint, grease or oil metal parts before being put away for a long time. Clean after use. Keep wooden handle from termite attack.   Pick Axe or Digger Pick axe or digger consists of a long wooden handle and…

  • SIMPLE FARM TOOLS (PART 1)
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    SIMPLE FARM TOOLS (PART 1)

    These are simple, handy tools used mainly by peasant farmers. They are designed to help the hands to apply force in farm operations. Some common simple farm tools and their functions are discussed below.   Types of Simple Farm Tools Cutlass This is the tool most commonly used by farmers. There are two main types – one has a slightly curved blade with a short wooden handle, while the other has a straight metal blade and a short wooden handle. One edge of the metal blade is sharp and the other is blunt. Functions/Uses For cutting down and clearing bushes and trees. For transplanting seedlings. For planting seeds and harvesting…

  • MATTER
    CHEMISTRY

    MATTER

    Science interprets nature in terms of energy and matter. Matter, the material of which the universe is composed, may be defined as anything that has mass and occupies space. Mass is a measure of quantity of matter. The mass of a body which is determined by means of an analytical balance is invariable, while the weight of a body is not. Weight is the gravitational force of attraction exerted by the earth on a body. The weight of a given body varies with the distance of that body from the centre of the earth. The weight of a body is directly proportional to its mass as well as the earth’s…

  • CALCULATION OF AREA OF FARM LAND AND PLANT POPULATION
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    CALCULATION OF AREA OF FARM LAND AND PLANT POPULATION

    The shape and size of any farmland can be measured or determined by farm surveying. The area of farmland varies; some are rectangular, square, triangular or even circular in shape. The formula used in the calculation of farmlands and plant population include: a) Area of Farmland: This refers to the product of the length and width of the farmland measured in metres. Mathematically, Area of farmland = Length x Width (metres)/(L x W)m   b) Number of Plant Stand/Plant Population: This refers to the number of plants in an area of farmland. Mathematically, Plant population= Area of farmland (m2)/Spacing (m3)   c) Spacing: This is the distance between one crop…

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