SIMPLE FARM TOOLS (PART 3)

Emasculator

This is an instrument used for castration of some farm animals. It consists of a pair of powerful pincers with plastic or metal handles. The pincers press the neck of the scrotum to crush the spermatic cord which supplies blood to the testes.

Function / Use

  • The emasculator is used to castrate some farm animals, especially the males, e.g ., bull, ram, doe (goat).

Maintenance Practices

  1. Keep clean always.
  2. Use according to instructions.
  3. Employ the service of an expert.
  4. Keep in cool, dry place.

 

Shears

The shears are an enlarged pair of scissors or, are scissors like in shape. They possess two long metal blades and two handles which may be wooden, metal, rubber or plastic. The blades are sharpened at one edge and are connected to the pivot by bolt and nut.

 

Functions / Uses

  1. Shears are used for pruning operations.
  2. They are also used for trimming flower hedges.
  3. They can be used for cutting flowers.

Maintenance Practices

  1. Store in a cool, dry place.
  2. Sharpen the blades properly.
  3. Keep away from rain to prevent rusting.
  4. Clean or wash after use.

 

Secateurs

It is scissors-like in shape but small in size. It consists of two short, metal blades – one with a concave curve and the other with a convex curve joined at a pivot by bolt and nut. It possesses two short wooden or metal handles. It usually has a spring between the handles.

Functions / Uses

  1. It is used for pruning shrubs, ornamental plants and for weeding.
  2. It is used for trimming hedges or shrubs.
  3. It is used for cutting bud, wood or scion and the root stock.

Maintenance Practices

  1. Metal blades should be washed or cleaned after use.
  2. Blades should be sharpened when necessary.
  3. Keep in termite-free area to protect wooden handles.
  4. Tighten bolt and nut when loosened.
  5. Store in a cool, dry place.

 

Hammer

Hammer is a tool with a heavy metal head on a short wooden handle. The metal head has two ends – one is the flat- ball end and the other end is prong-like.

Functions / Uses

  1. Hammer is used for straightening damaged or bent components of farm implements.
  2. It is used for driving nails into the wooden parts of farm structures/equipment.
  3. The ball end is used for riveting.
  4. The pronged end is used for removing nails from wood.

Maintenance Practices

  1. Keep in dry, cool place.
  2. Store in termite-free area to protect wooden handle.
  3. Grease or oil metal part before storing for a long time.

 

Mallet

This is a wooden hammer with a short handle and a large wooden head. The shape is just like the normal hammer except that it is larger but lighter than the metal hammer.

Functions / Uses

  1. It is used for driving a chisel while cutting or shaping wood.
  2. For hammering materials that would be damaged by a metal hammer.

Maintenance Practices

  1. Keep in a cool, dry place.
  2. Use only for intended function(s)
  3. Keep away from rain and termite infested area.
  4. Store in tool box.

 

Pliers

A pair of pliers is a small metal tool with jaws which normally have parallel-toothed surfaces, used for gripping.

Functions / Uses

  1. It is used for gripping firmly and for twisting wires.
  2. For holding or handling bolts and nuts.
  3. For handling small objects.
  4. For cutting, especially wires and other cables.

Maintenance Practices

  1. Store tool in a dry, cool place.
  2. Oil or grease metal parts.

 

Spanner

A spanner is a hand tool which consists of a small bar of steel having an open or close grip or jaw at one or both ends. This fits over or clamps the head of a bolt and can be used either to turn it or hold it in position. Some spanners are adjustable.

Functions / Uses

  1. It is used for loosening nuts / bolts on farm machineries.
  2. For tightening nuts on farm machineries.

Maintenance Practices

  1. Keep in a dry, cool place.
  2. Keep away from moist areas or rain to avoid rusting.
  3. Grease or oil before being put away for a long time.

 

Screw driver

This is a small tool with a wooden or plastic handle and a pointed or narrow metal rod. It has a blunt end which is either flat and straight or star-shaped.

Functions / Uses

  1. It is used for turning or screwing nails or screws into or out of wooden or metal surfaces.
  2. Some are used to detect the presence of electric current.

Maintenance Practices

  1. Keep away from rain to avoid rusting.
  2. Keep in a cool, dry place.
  3. Oil or grease metal parts, if it is to be stored for a long time.

 

Nut and Bolt

A bolt is a piece of metal consisting of a rod with a head at one end and a threaded area at the other end. It is used often with a nut.

Function or Use

  • Both bolt and nut are used for holding two pieces of metals or wood in position in farm machineries or structures.

Maintenance Practices

  1. Keep properly in tool box.
  2. Keep bolt and nuts in a cool, dry place.
  3. Keep away from rain to avoid rusting.
  4. Use the appropriate bolt for a nut.

 

Screw

A screw is a piece of metal consisting of a pin threaded c with a pointed end. The other bigger end has a narrow hole or cut on top in which a flat screw driver can fit in during use.

Function / Use

  • It is used to hold two or more pieces of metals or wood in position in farm machineries, equipment and structures.

Maintenance Practices

  1. Keep tool in a cool, dry place.
  2. Rub with oil or grease to prevent rusting.
  3. Use appropriate screw driver to screw in or screw out to avoid it wearing out.

 

File or Chisel

This has a straight steel blade with a sharp cutting edge. It is about 20-30cm long with a wooden handle.

Functions / Uses

  1. It is used for sharpening blades of farm tools.
  2. It is used for smoothening rough surfaces of farm implements.

Maintenance Practices

  1. Keep in a cool, dry place.
  2. Store in termite-free area to protect wooden handle.
  3. Grease or oil metal parts before storing for a very long time.

 

GENERAL MAINTENANCE OF SIMPLE FARM TOOLS AND IMPLEMENTS

The following maintenance practices or. precautions are to be adopted to prolong the “life span” and effective use of farm tools.

  1. Tools should be washed or cleaned after use.
  2. Oil, grease or lubricate movable joints to reduce friction.
  3. Turn or store upside-down for water to drain out where necessary, e.g ., watering can.
  4. Sharpen blunt edges or blade where necessary.
  5. Paint, oil or grease metallic parts against rusting where necessary.
  6. Store in a cool, dry place.
  7. Replace worn-out parts.
  8. Check and tighten loose nuts and bolts daily or periodically.
  9. Follow manufacturers’ instructions before using implements.
  10. Handle tools with care and use for intended purposes only.

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