• A. Forceps caused more neonatal trauma than vacuums
  • B. Vacuums caused more perineal trauma than forceps
  • C. Vacuums caused less perineal trauma than forceps ✓
  • D. Intracranial bleeding was only seen with vacuums


In the meta-analysis of trials comparing forceps with vacuums, it was concluded that vacuums caused less perineal trauma than forceps. This finding suggests that the use of vacuum extraction during childbirth may result in lower rates of perineal trauma compared to forceps delivery.

Forceps and vacuum extraction are both instrumental methods used in assisted vaginal delivery when there is a need to expedite the birth process or assist the mother in pushing. These methods can help reduce the risk of prolonged labor and its associated complications for both the mother and the baby.

Perineal trauma refers to injuries sustained by the perineum, which is the area between the vagina and anus. Perineal trauma can occur during childbirth due to stretching or tearing of the tissues in this region. Minimizing perineal trauma is important as it can lead to discomfort, pain, and potential long-term complications for the mother.

The meta-analysis findings indicating that vacuums caused less perineal trauma than forceps suggest that vacuum extraction may be a preferable option in certain cases where assisted vaginal delivery is necessary. However, it is essential for healthcare providers to carefully assess each individual case and consider various factors before deciding on the most appropriate method of assisted delivery.

In conclusion, based on the meta-analysis results, vacuums were found to cause less perineal trauma than forceps during assisted vaginal deliveries.