PRACTICAL GEOGRAPHY

  • FIELD-WORK IN GEOGRAPHY
    PRACTICAL GEOGRAPHY

    FIELD-WORK IN GEOGRAPHY

    Field-work in geography involves the work of gathering information by going into the field to gain practical experience and knowledge through firsthand observation.   Stages of Field-work The execution of any field-work in geography may be grouped into three stages, viz. (a) The Pre-Field Stage This stage involves the following steps: • State the type of study (i.e. physical features, settlement pattern, land use pattern, agricultural products, provision of social services, transport system, etc in a particular settlement). • Design and get the appropriate questionnaire for the study area, if necessary. • Where and when you are conducting the study. • Assemble the materials you need to conduct the study.…

  • Introduction to Land Surveying
    PRACTICAL GEOGRAPHY

    INTRODUCTION TO LAND SURVEYING

    A Brief Historical Account: It is not yet specifically known where surveying originated, but it is very probable that it has its origin in ancient Egypt. For instance a plan of the villa of a great Egyptian noble was found in a Thebian tomb of the eighth century dynasty. In the tomb of one Menna, at Thebes, there is a representation on the walls of two chainmen surveying a field of corn, and in Ptolemaic and Roman Papyri in the same country, measurements of plots of land are described. The invention of printing and engraving in Europe in the fifteenth century and the age of discoveries which followed contributed much…

  • COLONIAL RULE IN WEST AFRICA
    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY,  PRACTICAL GEOGRAPHY

    COLONIAL RULE IN WEST AFRICA

    The European scramble for Africa culminated in the Berlin West African Conference of 1884-85. The conference was called by German Chancellor Bismarck and would set up the parameters for the eventual partition of Africa. European nations were summoned to discuss issues of free navigation along the Niger and Congo rivers and to settle new claims to African coasts. In the end, the European powers signed The Berlin Act (Treaty). This treaty set up rules for European occupation of African territories. The treaty stated that any European claim to any part of Africa, would only be recognized if it was effectively occupied. The Berlin Conference therefore set the stage for the…

  • COMPONENTS OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)
    PRACTICAL GEOGRAPHY

    COMPONENTS OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)

    A working GIS integrates these five key components: hardware, software, data, people and methods. Hardware: Hardware is the computer on which a GIS operates. Today, GIS runs on a wide range of hardware types, from centralized computer servers to desktop computers used in stand-alone or networked configurations. Software: GIS software provides the functions and tools needed to store, analyze and display geographic information. Key software components are: A database management system (DBMS). Tools for the input and manipulation of geographic information. Tools that support geographic query, analysis and visualization. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) for easy access to tools. Data: Maybe the most important component of a GIS is the…

  • GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM DATA
    PRACTICAL GEOGRAPHY

    GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM DATA

    Data input refers to the procedure of automatization of the data and the conversion into forms that can be stored and analyzed in computers. This procedure is fundamental in every GIS and it differentiates depending on the model (vector or raster) and the origin of the data.   SOURCES OF GIS DATA There are many sources of data available for Geographical Information System (GIS). Such sources include the following: Land surveying. Remote sensing. Map digitizing. Map scanning. Field investigation. Tabular data.   Land Surveying: Land surveying is defined as the process by which measurement of land is made and then represent such measurement by tables, plans or layout for specific…

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