There are three plans or types of blood circulation in human beings, other mammals and…
HISTOLOGY OF BLOOD SMEAR AND LYMPHOID TISSUE
Blood Cell Identification Criteria
When identifying blood cells, several criteria are considered to distinguish different types of cells. Here are the common review criteria used for identifying blood cells:
- Cell Size: Blood cells vary in size, and their diameter is an essential characteristic for classification. For instance, red blood cells (erythrocytes) are typically smaller (around 6-8 μm in diameter) compared to white blood cells (leukocytes), which are larger (10-20 μm in diameter).
- Cell Shape: The shape of blood cells can be helpful in distinguishing different types. Red blood cells have a characteristic biconcave disc shape, while white blood cells are more irregular in shape. Neutrophils, for example, have a segmented nucleus and cytoplasm with granules.
- Nucleus Characteristics: The presence, shape, and appearance of the nucleus play a significant role in cell identification. White blood cells have distinct nuclei, which can be segmented (as seen in neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) or non-segmented (as in lymphocytes and monocytes). Red blood cells lack a nucleus.
- Cytoplasmic Granules: Some white blood cells contain granules within their cytoplasm, which can be helpful in distinguishing different cell types. These granules can be stained and observed under a microscope to determine if they are eosinophilic, basophilic, or neutrophilic.
- Staining Properties: Blood cell staining is crucial for identification. Common stains used in blood cell analysis include Wright-Giemsa stain, May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain, and Romanowsky stains. These stains allow for better visualization of cellular components, such as the nucleus and cytoplasmic structures, aiding in accurate identification.
- Cell Count and Distribution: The relative abundance of different cell types in a blood sample can provide additional clues for identification. A complete blood count (CBC) is often performed, which includes assessing the percentages and absolute counts of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Abnormalities in these counts can indicate various health conditions.
- Functional Characteristics: In certain cases, functional tests may be necessary to differentiate blood cell types further. These tests can involve assessing cell activity, antibody markers, enzymatic activity, or genetic markers specific to certain cell types.
It’s important to note that these criteria serve as a general framework for blood cell identification, but there may be additional factors or specialized techniques used depending on the specific context or diagnostic requirements.
Examining a blood smear under a light microscope is a common technique used in clinical laboratories to identify and analyze different types of blood cells. Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to perform this examination:
A) Prepare the blood smear:
- Obtain a small drop of blood, typically obtained from a finger prick or a venous blood sample.
- Place a clean glass microscope slide near the drop of blood.
- Using a pipette or capillary tube, touch the edge of the blood drop to collect a small amount of blood.
- Place a second slide at a 30-45 degree angle from the first slide, allowing the blood to spread across the slide’s edge.
- Slowly push the second slide along the first slide to create a thin, even smear of blood.
- Let the smear air-dry completely.
B) Stain the blood smear:
Once the blood smear is dry, fix it by passing the slide through a flame or using a commercially available fixative, following the instructions provided.
Once fixed, apply a suitable blood stain, such as Wright’s stain or Giemsa stain, to the smear. Follow the staining instructions carefully, as different stains may have varying protocols.
C) Observe and identify blood cells:
- Place the stained slide on the stage of a light microscope.
- Start examining the smear using the lowest magnification objective (typically 10x or 20x) to locate an area of interest.
- Once you find an area of interest, switch to higher magnifications (40x, 100x oil immersion) for more detailed observation. d. Identify and classify the different blood cells based on their morphological features. The main types of blood cells you may encounter include:
1) Red blood cells (erythrocytes): Round, biconcave cells without a nucleus.
2) White blood cells (leukocytes): Can be further classified into different types, including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Each type has distinct characteristics, such as size, shape, and staining properties.
3) Platelets (thrombocytes): Small, irregularly shaped cell fragments involved in blood clotting.
- Pay attention to the relative proportions of different cell types and any abnormalities or variations you may observe.
Lymphoid Organ Histology Examination
Histological examination of lymphoid organs under a light microscope allows for the study of the cellular composition and organization of these organs. Lymphoid organs play a vital role in the immune system and include structures such as lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and Peyer’s patches in the intestine. Here’s a general overview of what you might observe when examining histological sections of these organs:
- Lymph Nodes:
- Cortex: The outer region of the lymph node contains densely packed lymphoid follicles, which are arranged in a spherical or ovoid shape. These follicles consist of germinal centers (light-staining regions) and surrounding mantle zones (dark-staining regions).
- Paracortex: The middle region of the lymph node between the cortex and medulla contains numerous T-cells, high endothelial venules (HEVs), and dendritic cells.
- Medulla: The inner region of the lymph node consists of medullary cords and medullary sinuses. Medullary cords contain plasma cells, macrophages, and reticular cells, while medullary sinuses contain lymphocytes and macrophages.
- White Pulp: Composed of lymphoid tissue organized into periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (PALS) surrounding central arterioles. Germinal centers may be observed in the white pulp.
- Red Pulp: Consists of splenic cords (cords of Billroth) and sinusoids. Splenic cords contain red blood cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Sinusoids are thin-walled vessels lined by endothelial cells.
- Crypts: Tonsils exhibit deep invaginations called crypts, which extend from the surface into the tissue. These crypts are lined by stratified squamous epithelium.
- Lymphoid Follicles: Tonsils contain numerous lymphoid follicles with germinal centers. These follicles are located within the underlying lymphoid tissue.
- Peyer’s Patches:
- Intestinal Epithelium: Peyer’s patches are located in the mucosa of the small intestine. The epithelium covering Peyer’s patches consists of specialized M cells (microfold cells) that transport antigens from the intestinal lumen to the underlying lymphoid tissue.
- Lymphoid Follicles: Similar to lymph nodes, Peyer’s patches have lymphoid follicles with germinal centers and mantle zones. They are interspersed with diffuse lymphoid tissue.
Please note that the specific features observed in histological sections may vary depending on the staining techniques used and the specific region of the organ being examined. Additionally, other lymphoid organs, such as the thymus and bone marrow, have distinct histological characteristics that are not covered in this response.