• A. Khawārij ✓
  • B. Ahl al-Sunnah
  • C. Munāfiqūn
  • D. Umayyads


The answer to the question is: A. Khawārij

The Battle of Siffin, which took place in 657 CE, was a significant event in early Islamic history. It occurred during the First Fitna, a civil war within the Islamic community following the assassination of the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan. The battle was fought between the forces of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the fourth caliph, and those of Muawiya I, the governor of Syria and a relative of Uthman. The conflict ultimately led to the emergence of a radical group known as the Khawārij.

The Khawārij were a sect within early Islam that emerged as a result of the discontent and disillusionment with both Ali and Muawiya following the Battle of Siffin. The term “Khawārij” is derived from the Arabic word for “those who went out,” reflecting their withdrawal from Ali’s camp due to their disagreement with his decision to accept arbitration with Muawiya. The Khawārij believed that Ali had compromised his authority as caliph by agreeing to arbitration rather than seeking retribution for Uthman’s assassination. This dissent led to their secession from Ali’s forces and their eventual formation as an independent group.

The Khawārij held extreme views on matters of governance and religious interpretation, advocating for strict adherence to their interpretation of Islamic principles. They also espoused a militant ideology that justified violence against those they deemed to be deviant or impious Muslims, including other Muslims who did not share their beliefs. Their uncompromising stance on matters of faith and governance made them a divisive force within early Islamic society.

The emergence of the Khawārij as a distinct group following the Battle of Siffin had lasting implications for Islamic history. Their radical ideology and militant actions contributed to internal conflicts within the Muslim community and influenced subsequent developments in Islamic jurisprudence and political thought.

Overall, the Battle of Siffin played a pivotal role in shaping the trajectory of early Islamic history by giving rise to the Khawārij, whose beliefs and actions left a lasting impact on the development of Islamic theology and governance.