• A. Bosch process ✓
  • B. Contact process
  • C. Haber process
  • D. Bayer Process


The answer to the question is: A. Bosch process

Bosch’s process is a method used for the industrial preparation of hydrogen. This process involves the reaction of steam with hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The primary steps involved in the preparation of hydrogen by Bosch’s process are as follows:

Steam Reforming

The first step in Bosch’s process is steam reforming, which is also known as steam methane reforming (SMR). In this step, high-temperature steam (700-1,000°C) reacts with natural gas (methane) in the presence of a catalyst to produce hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and a relatively small amount of carbon dioxide. The chemical reaction for steam reforming can be represented by the following equation:

CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2

This reaction is endothermic, requiring a significant amount of heat to drive the process.

Water-Gas Shift Reaction

The next step in the process is the water-gas shift reaction, which is used to convert the carbon monoxide produced in the steam reforming step into additional hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The reaction occurs at elevated temperatures and is catalyzed by a shift catalyst. The chemical equation for the water-gas shift reaction is:

CO + H2O → CO2 + H2

This reaction helps increase the yield of hydrogen while reducing the concentration of carbon monoxide.

Carbon Dioxide Removal

After the water-gas shift reaction, the resulting gas mixture contains hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and residual carbon monoxide. To obtain pure hydrogen, the carbon dioxide must be removed from the gas stream. This is typically achieved through processes such as pressure swing adsorption (PSA) or membrane separation.

Purification and Compression

Once the carbon dioxide has been removed, the hydrogen gas undergoes further purification to remove any remaining impurities. This may involve additional processes such as pressure swing adsorption or membrane separation to achieve high-purity hydrogen. Following purification, the hydrogen gas is compressed to the required pressure for storage or transportation.

Overall Process Efficiency

Bosch’s process for industrial hydrogen production is well-established and widely used due to its efficiency and ability to produce high-purity hydrogen. The process plays a crucial role in meeting the demand for hydrogen across various industries, including petrochemicals, ammonia production, and fuel cells.

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