• A. ensure freedom of speech
  • B. guarantee the liberty of citizens ✓
  • C. promote good governance
  • D. promote trade


The purpose of entrenching Fundamental Human Rights in constitutions is to guarantee the liberty of citizens. This means that every individual has the right to live, express themselves, worship, move and associate freely without fear of discrimination or persecution from any person or group. The constitution serves as a safeguard for these rights, protecting individuals from any form of abuse or infringement by the state or other citizens. The rights enshrined in the constitution help to promote good governance, as they serve as a standard for the government’s actions and ensure that the government is held accountable for its actions. They also promote trade by creating a stable and secure environment that encourages foreign investment and economic growth.

Promoting Human Rights – Good Governance, the Rule of Law and Democracy

The promotion of human rights is closely tied to good governance, the rule of law, and democracy. Without these essential components, the promise of human rights may remain unfulfilled. Transparent, responsible, accountable, and participatory governance is crucial for enduring respect for human dignity and the defense of human rights. The judiciary plays a critical role in recognizing, protecting, and ensuring the enjoyment of human rights.

The Origins of International Human Rights

The establishment of international human rights standards began with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) in 1948. The UDHR codified fundamental rights and freedoms that all individuals are entitled to enjoy regardless of various characteristics. These rights have deep roots in different legal traditions worldwide and have been further articulated in subsequent conventions such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).

UN Human Rights Regime

The United Nations oversees a comprehensive human rights regime through various treaties, conventions, and supervisory mechanisms. States are required to submit periodic reports on their compliance with human rights obligations under different conventions. Treaty Bodies monitor state compliance and issue recommendations when deficits are identified. Special procedures assist in promoting and protecting human rights globally.

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