• MEANING OF CROP PEST
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    MEANING OF CROP PEST

    A pest can be described as any organism capable of causing damage to crop plant.   Types of Crop Pest Important pests of crop plants are grouped into the following classes: insects birds; rodents; monkeys; man; nematodes.   Insect pests can be classified into various groups based on their mode of feeding. These groups of insect pests include: biting and chewing insects; piercing and sucking insects; boring insects.   Biting and Chewing Insects: These insect pests possess strong mandible and maxillae (mouthparts) which enable them to bite and chew plant parts. Examples are: termites, grasshoppers, leaf worms, army worms, mantids, locusts and beetles. Piercing and Sucking Insects: These insect pests…

  • PROCESSES OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    PROCESSES OF CROP IMPROVEMENT

    The processes of crop improvement include: Introduction. Selection. Breeding or Hybridization.   a) Introduction: This involves the importation of introduction or some varieties of crops with desirable characteristics into areas where they have not existed before. In other words, it involves the movement of crop from its origin or supposed centre of evolution to another region or area where it can adapt. Crops with desired qualities are identified in their centres of origin and then procured. Such crops are then introduced into the breeder’s country for testing and multiplication. Such imported crops are usually quarantined by the nation’s plant quarantine service before introduction into the country importing it. Introduction is…

  • METHODS OF REPLENISHING LOST NUTRIENTS
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    METHODS OF REPLENISHING LOST NUTRIENTS

    Different methods are used by farmers to maintain the fertility of the soil or replace lost nutrients. These methods include: Crop rotation. Organic manuring. Bush fallowing. Cover cropping. Liming. Inorganic manuring or Fertilizers.   a) Crop Rotation Crop rotation is defined as the planting of different types of crops on the same piece of land in a definite sequence. In other words, it is a system of farming whereby different crops are grown on the same piece of land year after year in a definite manner so as to maintain the fertility of the soil. The cycle is planned in such a way as to restore nutrients removed from the…

  • WHEAT
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    WHEAT (Triticum spp)

    Wheat, the most important crop of the world, is harvested some where every month of the year. More hectares of land worldwide are devoted to wheat than any other crop and the world’s total production exceeds that of any other grain. It is the preferred grain for food in advanced countries. Unlike many other cereal crops, wheat is mainly a food rather than a feed crop. After processing, the crop product is consumed directly by man, usually as a flour product (bread, pastries, cakes, crackers, macaroni and spaghetti). Wheat is also used in the manufacture of dextrose and alcohol. In producing wheat flour, the by-products which are higher in protein…

  • MEANING OF WEEDS
    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

    MEANING OF WEEDS

    Weed is any plant that grows in a place where it is not expected to grow or a plant which grows out of place. Weed can also be defined as a plant that grows where it is not desired in such a way that it constitutes nuisance either to man, livestock or crops. All farmers have to work hard to prevent their crops from being invaded by weeds. Losses in crop yield due to weeds may be greater than those due to plant pests and diseases. If a farmer fails to control weed growth, the chances of successful crop production are seriously reduced.   EFFECTS/ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF WEEDS The harm…

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