CLASSIFICATION OF SETTLEMENT ACCORDING TO PATTERN OR SHAPE

CLASSIFICATION OF SETTLEMENT ACCORDING TO PATTERN OR SHAPE

The pattern or shape of settlement refers to the arrangement of buildings in a settlement.

The main patterns of settlements include:

  • Dispersed (scattered) settlement.
  • Linear settlement.
  • Nucleated or Dense settlement.
  • Isolated settlement.

 

  • DISPERSED (SCATTERED) SETTLEMENT
  1. The buildings are scattered or far from each other.
  2. It has few social amenities.
  3. It is a feature of rural settlement.
  4. They are mainly involved in primary activities like farming, lumbering, fishing, etc.
  5. Individual compounds are widely spaced from one another.
  6. Behind the buildings, there are family parcels of lands.
  7. Distinct boundaries separate one family land from another.
  8. The farms are intensively tilled.
  9. There is quiet life style as there is little opportunity for gathering.

Reasons or need for Dispersed Settlement

  1. The quest for a quiet environment.
  2. Distinctiveness of family land.
  3. Reduction in the level of conflict.
  4. The need to have enough land.

 

  • LINEAR SETTLEMENT
  1. The buildings are located along the routes e.g. roads, railways or rivers in a linear form.
  2. Where two or more routes e.g. roads, railways meet, a sub linear settlement called nodal settlement is formed.
  3. When a settlement is formed as a result of the meeting of two rivers such settlement is referred to as a confluence settlement e.g. Lokoja (Nigeria), Khartoum (Sudan), etc.
  4. It could be several kilometres in length.
  5. Gardens are located behind houses.
  6. Farmlands are also located behind gardens.

Reasons or need for Linear Settlement

  1. There is the need to be near to transport network.
  2. For easy accessibility to other areas.
  3. The need to transport farm produce to markets.
  4. Reduction in transport cost due to nearness to road, rail, etc.

 

  • NUCLEATED OR DENSE SETTLEMENT
  1. The buildings are very close to each other or they are concentrated in a small area.
  2. It has many social amenities.
  3. It is a feature of urban settlement.
  4. People are mainly involved in secondary and tertiary activities like manufacturing, construction, etc.
  5. There is an obvious centre called a nucleus.
  6. The area is well connected with roads.
  7. Farmlands are located outside the settlement.
  8. The level of interaction between the inhabitants is very high.

Reasons or need for Nucleated Settlement

  1. There is the need to maintain social ties.
  2. There is easy development of infrastructure and social amenities e.g. light and water.
  3. The need for defense.
  4. There is easy communication.
  5. There is commercial development.
  6. There is highly developed organization with well-defined leadership structure.

 

  • ISOLATED SETTLEMENT
  1. It consists of a single house or few houses.
  2. The houses are very far from one another.
  3. Farmlands are very large.
  4. The level of interaction is very low.
  5. The area is poorly connected with roads.

Reasons or need for Isolated Settlement

  1. Availability of vast agricultural lands.
  2. Absence of social collision.
  3. There is a special pattern of agricultural development e.g. plantation agriculture.
  4. Presence of wealthy landlords.