• EVIDENCES IN SUPPORT OF ORGANIC EVOLUTION
    BIOLOGY

    EVIDENCES IN SUPPORT OF ORGANIC EVOLUTION

    1) Evidence from comparative anatomy Homologous structures can be used to explain the evidence of comparative anatomy. Homologous structures are those structures which are built in the same common plan but yet modified to perform different functions. For example the…

  • EVOLUTION OF NEW SPECIES BY MUTATION AND ISOLATION
    BIOLOGY

    EVOLUTION OF NEW SPECIES BY MUTATION AND ISOLATION

    A) Mutation theory of organic evolution Mutation is a change in genetic material resulting in a new stable characteristic which can be inherited by offspring. Hugo De Vries, a Dutch botanist propounded the mutation theory of organic evolution in 1901…

  • LAMARCK’S THEORY OF ORGANIC EVOLUTION
    BIOLOGY

    LAMARCK’S THEORY OF ORGANIC EVOLUTION

    Jean Baptiste Lamarck, a French biologist was one of the first biologists to put forward the theory of organic evolution in 1801. His idea of organic evolution was hinged on three theories. 1) The theory of need This states that…

  • DIVINE CREATION AND ORGANIC EVOLUTION
    BIOLOGY

    DIVINE CREATION AND ORGANIC EVOLUTION

    The world is occupied by millions of different kinds of plants and animals. These plants and animals are adapted to different kinds of habitats and niches. How did these different organisms come to exist in the world? This is the…

  • MECHANISM OF TRANSPORTATION IN PLANTS
    BIOLOGY

    MECHANISM OF TRANSPORTATION IN PLANTS

    The lower plants All the plants from the single-celled Chlamydomonas, bacterium, Phacus to the simple multicellular Spirogyra, Funaria (Bryophyta) that lack conducting vessels use their cytoplasm for the movement and distribution of materials. Most of these lower plants live in…

  • SOUTHERN COASTLANDS OF NIGERIA
    REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

    SOUTHERN COASTLANDS OF NIGERIA

    Physical Setting The coastal lowlands bordering of Nigeria range in height from sea level to 150m above sea level and extend across the entire length of the country coast from Yewa-Badagry area in the west to the Bakassi peninsula at…

  • SOUTH WESTERN HIGHLANDS OF NIGERIA
    REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

    SOUTH WESTERN HIGHLANDS OF NIGERIA

    Physical Setting The western highlands region covers Oyo, Osun, Ondo, Ekiti, Edo and parts of Kwara and Kogi States. The highlands generally range between 300m and 700m above sea level. There are isolated local peaks, such as, Idanre and Efon-Alaye…

  • CROSS RIVER PLAINS
    REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

    CROSS RIVER PLAINS

    Physical Setting The Cross River plains lie between the Udi hills to the west and highlands of the eastern borders of Nigeria. The Cross River and its tributaries dominate the drainage system of this region. This massive lowland covers an…

  • NIGER BENUE TROUGH
    REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

    NIGER BENUE TROUGH

    Physical Features The Niger-Benue trough is a massive depression in the middle of the country, which is generally 300m below sea level. The trough derives its name from the two major rivers in the area, that is, Rivers Niger and…

  • THE CHAD BASIN
    REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

    THE CHAD BASIN

    Physical Features The Chad Basin in the north eastern extreme corner of Nigeria is basically a flat plain at an elevation of about 300m above sea level. Sand dunes are common in several places on the basin. Lake Chad is…

  • THE SOKOTO PLAIN
    REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

    THE SOKOTO PLAIN

    Physical Features The Sokoto plain in northwest Nigeria is essentially a dissected lowland, about 300metres above sea level. It is drained by two major rivers and their tributaries; these are the Sokoto and Rima rivers. These rivers have extensive flat…

  • EASTERN SCARPLANDS OF NIGERIA
    REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

    EASTERN SCARPLANDS OF NIGERIA

    This region is found east of the Niger delta and south of River Benue. It is bordered on the east by the Cross River Plains as shown in Fig. 43.2.   Physical Features Major relief features of this region are…

  • EASTERN HIGHLANDS OF NIGERIA
    REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

    EASTERN HIGHLANDS OF NIGERIA

    Physical Setting The eastern highlands consist of chains of hills, plateaus and mountains along the eastern borderlands of Nigeria. Prominent among these relief features are Bamenda highlands, Biu plateau, Mambila plateau, Shebshi and Alantika mountains, Adamawa plateau and Obudu hills.…

  • GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS OF NIGERIA
    REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

    GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS OF NIGERIA

    Nigeria can be classified into nine broad geographical regions, each having obvious and essentially similar physical settings, people and population, resources and economic activities, transportation and development issues and problems. These regions are shown in Fig. 43.1 and include: 1)…

  • NORTH CENTRAL HIGHLANDS OF NIGERIA
    REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

    NORTH CENTRAL HIGHLANDS OF NIGERIA

    Physical Features This is a very extensive region that extends from Katsina in the north to Yelwa in the West, Bauchi in the east and Kafanchan in the south. The landscape is made up of gentle, undulating plains. The relief…

  • LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
    BIOLOGY

    LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

    The part of plasma which filters into the spaces among the tissues and flows in vessels similar to arteries and veins constitute the lymphatic system. The lymph is clear colourless tissue fluid. The vessels that convey lymph are called lymphatic…

  • THE CIRCULATION OF BLOOD
    BIOLOGY

    THE CIRCULATION OF BLOOD

    There are three plans or types of blood circulation in human beings, other mammals and birds. They are the pulmonary circulation, systemic circulation and the coronary circulation.   The pulmonary circulation (Heart ->lung ->heart) The pulmonary circulation transports blood between…

  • HEART
    BIOLOGY

    HEART

    The heart is an muscular organ that pumps blood to all human parts of the body. It lies at the centre of the thoracic cavity in the pericardial cavity and being flanked on either side by and left lungs. It…

  • PHYSICAL SETTING OF NIGERIA
    REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

    PHYSICAL SETTING OF NIGERIA

    The main physical features are the geology, relief and drainage systems. They are examined generally and on regional basis.   Geology The geology of Nigeria shows that the rocks found in the country range from the PreCambrian and Quaternary geological…

  • TRANSPORT SYSTEM
    BIOLOGY

    TRANSPORT SYSTEM

    The transport system carries food and oxygen to all tissues and removes waste materials of metabolism, convenes hormones from ductless glands to their target organs and the body temperatures are equalized.   Needs for transportation In Amoeba and many simple…

  • FERN
    BIOLOGY

    FERN

    The group – Pteridophyta consists of ferns and club-mosses. Dryopteris is a fern. It is seen growing in large number as epiphytes on oil palm trees. Dryopteris has a tuft of strong adventitious roots, a short unbranching stem and leaves…

  • MOSSES
    BIOLOGY

    MOSSES

    Mosses are small, green and simple land plants belonging to phylum Bryophyta and class Musci. They are found growing on damp places. A common example of mosses is Funaria hygrometrica commonly found growing on old blocks, block fences, tree trunks…

  • SEEDS AND FRIUTS
    BIOLOGY

    SEEDS AND FRIUTS

    Seeds A seed is a structure which develops from the ovule after fertilization. A seed consists of an embryo and one or two cotyledons. It may contain an endosperm or food reserve. The embryo is made up of a radicle…

  • DISPERSAL OF FRUITS AND SEEDS
    BIOLOGY

    DISPERSAL OF FRUITS AND SEEDS

    After the maturation of fruits, an abscission layer is formed at the point of attachment of the fruits to the stems. This layer later dries up and the fruits drop from the plant. Some times the fruits split up to…

  • MOVEMENTS IN FISH
    BIOLOGY

    MOVEMENTS IN FISH

    Swimming movements Each side of the vertebral column (flexible backbone) of a fish is made of muscle blocks or myotomes. The muscle blocks are arranged in a zig-zag fashion from head to tail. Each muscle block starts from the transverse…

  • APPENDICULAR SKELETON
    BIOLOGY

    APPENDICULAR SKELETON

    The appendicular skeleton is made up of the limb girdles (pectoral and pelvic girdles) and the limbs (fore limbs and hind limbs).     The pectoral girdles The pectoral girdle consists of a triangular plate of bone called scapula or…

  • CLASSIFICATION (TAXONOMY) OF LIVING THINGS
    BIOLOGY

    CLASSIFICATION (TAXONOMY) OF LIVING THINGS

    There are over 2,000,000 known different organisms in the world today and probably over 1,000,000 are left to be discovered and named. All these living things have different characteristics such as shape, size, colour, and height. It will, therefore, be…

  • CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS
    BIOLOGY

    CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS

    The animal kingdom is divided into invertebrates (animals without backbones) and vertebrates (animals with backbones).   Invertebrates The subphylum invertebrate (the invertebrates is made up mainly of the following phyla: Protozoa, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Arthropoda.  …

  • NEW SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION
    BIOLOGY

    NEW SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION

    The modern classification system based on physiology, biochemistry and embryology have revealed distinct similarities between living organisms which external appearances of organisms will not show or discover. Not all biologists have agreed on this new classification of five kingdoms instead…

  • ALIMENTARY CANAL OF COCKROACH
    BIOLOGY

    ALIMENTARY CANAL OF COCKROACH

    Cockroach is an omnivorous animal eating anything ranging from starchy and sweet things to papers, clothes etc. Its alimentary canal is therefore adapted to suit its type of diet. The alimentary canal consists of foregut, midgut and hindgut. 1) Foregut…

  • MOVEMENTS IN HYDRA AND EARTHWORM
    BIOLOGY

    MOVEMENTS IN HYDRA AND EARTHWORM

    Movements in Hydra  1) Swaying Sometimes Hydra comes to rest on rock or other suitable hard surface in water and fixes itself temporarily with mucus substances at the basal disc. Even when Hydra is fixed, it is continuously swaying and…

  • FIRST AID IN HAEMORRHAGE
    BIOLOGY

    FIRST AID IN HAEMORRHAGE

    Haemorrhage (bleeding) is the coming out of blood from the blood vessels which have been damaged. When the loss of blood is to the outside, it is called external haemorrhage and when it is to the tissues, it is called…

  • POLLINATION IN PLANTS
    BIOLOGY

    POLLINATION IN PLANTS

    Pollination is defined as the transfer of mature pollen grains from the anthers of one flower to the mature stigma of the same flower or another flower of the same plant or closely related species. Pollination is the first step…

  • FERTILIZATION IN FLOWERING PLANTS
    BIOLOGY

    FERTILIZATION IN FLOWERING PLANTS

    Immediately after pollination, fertilization follows. Fertilization is the union of male and female gametes to form a zygote. In a flower, the male gametes develop from the pollen grains while the female gametes develop from the ovules which are retained…

  • SHOOT SYSTEM
    BIOLOGY

    SHOOT SYSTEM

    This is the part of the plant which grows above the soil except the modified aerial roots. The shoot system consists of two main organs – the stem and the leaves. During the reproductive stage, flowers and fruits may be…

  • ROOT SYSTEM
    BIOLOGY

    ROOT SYSTEM

    The root system is the part of the plant growing in the soil. This excludes the underground stems which are organs of perennation (survival from year to year by vegetative means). There are two kinds of root systems, namely: tap…

  • EXTERNAL FEATURES OF FLOWERING PLANTS
    BIOLOGY

    EXTERNAL FEATURES OF FLOWERING PLANTS

    The flowering plants form a group of plants known as Angiosperms. They are characterized by the possession of flowers for sexual reproduction. They bear flowers in their various breeding seasons and after pollination and fertilization, seeds are formed enclosed in…

  • PRIMATES
    BIOLOGY

    PRIMATES

    Primates are the most highly developed of all mammals with large brain, forward-facing eyes with bilocular vision, grasping fingers and toes equipped with flat nails.   Characteristic features of Primates 1) Well developed arms and hands The arms and hands…

  • THE STRUCTURE OF MAMMALIAN GAMETES
    BIOLOGY

    THE STRUCTURE OF MAMMALIAN GAMETES

    The mammalian gametes are male gametes called sperm or spermatozoa (singular = spermato-zoon), while the female gametes are called eggs or ova (singular = ovum) The reproductive sex cells are also known as gametes. The formation of gametes or gametogenisis…

  • GERMINATION
    BIOLOGY

    GERMINATION

    Germination is a process by which the embryo of a seed grows out of its testa and develops into a seedling. In other words, Germination is the series of changes by which an embryo in a seed grows into seedling.…

  • PHYSICAL SETTING OF AFRICA
    GEOGRAPHY OF AFRICA,  REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

    PHYSICAL SETTING OF AFRICA

    The physical setting of Africa is defined by its relief, drainage, climate and vegetation, among others. These factors define Africa’s physical environment and they are important influences on patterns of human activity on the continent. The physical environment affects such…

  • PARTURITION OR CHILD BIRTH
    BIOLOGY

    PARTURITION OR CHILD BIRTH

    Parturition (labour) is the expulsion of the foetus, placenta and foetal membranes from the uterus. After about 270-280 days in the uterus, the foetus is now prepared to come to the world. The foetus at this stage has turned its…

  • EXTRAEMBRYONIC MEMBRANES
    BIOLOGY

    EXTRAEMBRYONIC MEMBRANES

    When the embryo has been implanted, it produces four extraembryonic membranes (membranes outside the body of the embryo namely: amnion, chorion, allantois and yolk sac). Since these membranes are located outside the body of the embryo, they are referred to…

  • INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE IN NIGERIA
    REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

    INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE IN NIGERIA

    Industrial enterprise in Nigeria can be broadly classified into (i) local arts and craft, and (ii) modern manufacturing.   Local Arts and Craft Long before the coming of Europeans and modern manufacturing to Nigeria, the fabrication of local items, such…

  • LIVER
    BIOLOGY

    LIVER

    The liver is the largest gland in the body. It is dark-red, spongy and lobed. The lobes are: caudate lobe, left lobe, right lobe and median lobe. It is hung from the posterior surface of the diaphragm by a ligament…

  • STOMACH
    BIOLOGY

    STOMACH

    The stomach is a thick-walled large muscular sac which lies in the left portion of the abdominal cavity below the diaphragm. It is made of three layers of muscles arranged longitudinally, circularly and obliquely. The contractions of these muscles in…

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