• A. blacker.
  • B. cheaper.
  • C. more elastic
  • D. tougher ✓
  • E. softer.


The answer to the question is: D. tougher

Vulcanization is a chemical process that involves adding sulphur to rubber to improve its properties. The addition of sulphur cross-links the polymer chains in rubber, resulting in enhanced strength, durability, and elasticity. This process was discovered by Charles Goodyear in 1839 and revolutionized the rubber industry.

The primary purpose of using sulphur to vulcanize rubber is to make it tougher. Vulcanization significantly improves the mechanical properties of rubber, making it more resistant to wear, tear, and deformation. The cross-linking of polymer chains through sulphur bridges enhances the structural integrity of rubber, making it suitable for a wide range of applications where durability is essential.

Effects of Sulphur Vulcanization on Rubber Properties:

  1. Increased Toughness: Vulcanized rubber is much tougher than raw, unvulcanized rubber. The sulphur cross-links create a three-dimensional network within the rubber matrix, increasing its strength and toughness.
  2. Enhanced Elasticity: While vulcanization does not directly increase the elasticity of rubber, it helps maintain the material’s elasticity over a wider range of temperatures and environmental conditions. This makes vulcanized rubber more resilient and durable.
  3. Improved Chemical Resistance: Vulcanized rubber exhibits better resistance to chemicals, oils, and solvents compared to raw rubber. The cross-linked structure formed during vulcanization provides a barrier against external agents that could degrade the material.
  4. Heat Resistance: Sulphur vulcanization enhances the heat resistance of rubber, allowing it to withstand higher temperatures without deforming or losing its mechanical properties. This is crucial for applications where rubber is exposed to elevated temperatures.
  5. Reduced Tackiness: Vulcanized rubber is less tacky than raw rubber, making it easier to handle and process in manufacturing operations. The reduced tackiness also improves the surface finish and appearance of vulcanized rubber products.

In conclusion, the use of sulphur in vulcanizing rubber primarily aims to make it tougher by enhancing its strength, durability, and overall mechanical properties.

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