PHYSICS

ELECTRIC CHARGES ON THE SURFACE OF A CONDUCTOR WOULD BE MOST EVENLY DISTRIBUTED IF THE SHAPE OF THE CONDUCTOR IS

  • A. conical
  • B. cubical
  • C. cylindrical
  • D. parabolic
  • E. spherical ✓

 

Electric charges on the surface of a conductor would be most evenly distributed if the shape of the conductor is spherical. This is due to the property of conductors known as electrostatic shielding, where excess charge on a conductor distributes itself uniformly on the surface. In the case of a spherical conductor, the excess charge will distribute itself evenly around the entire surface due to the symmetry of the shape. This results in the most uniform distribution of electric charges compared to other shapes like conical, cubical, cylindrical, or parabolic conductors.

Spherical conductors have the advantage of distributing charges uniformly because any excess charge will repel each other and spread out as far away from each other as possible due to electrostatic repulsion. The spherical shape allows for this even distribution without any accumulation of charge in specific areas, making it ideal for achieving equilibrium in charge distribution.

In other words, in the case of a conductor, the electric charges on its surface will be most evenly distributed if the shape of the conductor is spherical. This is due to the principle of electrostatic equilibrium, which states that in a conductor at rest, the electric field inside it is zero, and any excess charge resides entirely on its surface.

When a conductor is shaped as a sphere, the charges will distribute themselves uniformly on its surface. This happens because any excess charge placed on a conductor will repel each other until they reach a state of equilibrium. The charges will spread out as far away from each other as possible to minimize their potential energy, resulting in an even distribution over the surface of a sphere.

In contrast, for shapes like a cube, cylinder, cone, or parabola, the distribution of charges would not be as uniform as in a sphere. These shapes have different geometries that do not allow for charges to be equidistant from each other on the surface, leading to non-uniform charge distributions.

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