• A. Air enters the cranium ✓
  • B. The patient also has pneumonia
  • C. The head is tilted below heart level
  • D. There is raised intracranial pressure


Pneumocephalus is a condition characterized by the presence of air or gas within the cranial cavity. This condition can occur as a result of various medical procedures, trauma, or infection. The air in the cranial cavity can cause a variety of symptoms, including headache, nausea, vomiting, and altered level of consciousness.

There are several ways in which air can enter the cranial cavity and cause pneumocephalus. These include:

  • Traumatic injury: Pneumocephalus can occur as a result of a traumatic injury to the head, such as a skull fracture or penetrating head wound. These types of injuries can create a direct pathway for air to enter the cranial cavity.
  • Medical procedures: Certain medical procedures, such as neurosurgery or the placement of a lumbar drain, can also result in pneumocephalus. These procedures can create a small opening in the dura mater, the tough membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord, allowing air to enter the cranial cavity.
  • Infection: In some cases, pneumocephalus can be caused by an infection that spreads to the cranial cavity. This is known as meningitis or encephalitis. The infection can cause inflammation and damage to the dura mater, creating a pathway for air to enter the brain.
  • Spontaneous: In rare cases, pneumocephalus can occur spontaneously, without any known cause. This is known as spontaneous intracranial hypotension and is thought to be caused by a decrease in cerebrospinal fluid pressure.

It is important to note that pneumocephalus is not related to pneumonia, which is an infection of the lungs. Additionally, the position of the head (tilted below heart level or not) does not play a role in the development of pneumocephalus. Raised intracranial pressure can be a complication of pneumocephalus, but it is not a cause of the condition.

In summary, pneumocephalus occurs when air enters the cranial cavity as a result of trauma, medical procedures, infection, or spontaneously. It is not related to pneumonia or the position of the head, and raised intracranial pressure can be a complication but is not a cause.

In other words, Pneumocephalus occurs when air enters the cranium. This condition is characterized by the presence of air within the intracranial cavity, which can result from various causes such as head trauma, neurosurgical procedures, or infections. The entry of air into the cranium can lead to symptoms such as headache, confusion, and neurological deficits, depending on the extent and location of the pneumocephalus.

In cases of traumatic brain injury or skull fractures, air may enter the intracranial space through a communication with the external environment. Neurosurgical procedures involving the skull or sinuses can also predispose patients to pneumocephalus if there is a breach in the dura mater. Additionally, infections such as meningitis or sinusitis can lead to the accumulation of air within the cranial cavity.

Pneumocephalus is typically diagnosed using imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) scans, which can visualize the presence of air within the intracranial space. Treatment of pneumocephalus depends on the underlying cause and may involve conservative management or surgical intervention to remove the air and repair any dural defects.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *