GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

OVERVIEW OF COMMON COSMETIC SURGERY OPTIONS

Cosmetic surgery versus Plastic surgery

Cosmetic surgery and plastic surgery are two distinct medical specialties that focus on enhancing a person’s appearance. While they share some similarities, there are important differences between the two.

Cosmetic surgery, also known as aesthetic surgery, is a branch of medicine that aims to improve the appearance of specific body parts or features. It is primarily elective and focuses on enhancing aesthetic appeal, symmetry, and proportion. Cosmetic surgery procedures are typically performed on normal structures of the body with the goal of improving self-esteem and self-confidence. These procedures are not medically necessary and are usually chosen by individuals who want to enhance their physical appearance.

Some common cosmetic surgery procedures include breast augmentation, rhinoplasty (nose reshaping), liposuction, facelifts, tummy tucks, and eyelid surgery. These procedures can be performed on various body parts to alter their shape, size, or position. Cosmetic surgery may also involve non-surgical treatments such as Botox injections or dermal fillers.

On the other hand, plastic surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on reconstructing or repairing defects in the body’s form and function. It encompasses both reconstructive surgery and cosmetic surgery. Plastic surgeons undergo extensive training to address a wide range of conditions, including congenital abnormalities, trauma-related injuries, burns, cancer reconstruction, hand surgery, and microsurgery.

Reconstructive plastic surgery aims to restore normal function and appearance to body parts affected by congenital anomalies (such as cleft lip and palate), trauma (such as facial fractures), infections (such as necrotizing fasciitis), or diseases (such as breast cancer). These procedures often involve complex techniques to rebuild or repair damaged tissues using grafts, flaps, or implants.

While cosmetic surgery is focused on enhancing aesthetics, plastic surgeons may also perform cosmetic procedures as part of their practice. However, their primary goal is to restore function and improve quality of life for patients with physical impairments or abnormalities.

In summary, the main difference between cosmetic surgery and plastic surgery lies in their primary objectives. Cosmetic surgery aims to enhance appearance and is elective, while plastic surgery focuses on reconstructing or repairing defects and can be both elective and medically necessary.

 

History of Plastic and Cosmetic surgery

Plastic surgery and cosmetic surgery have a long and fascinating history, dating back thousands of years. The desire to enhance one’s appearance or correct physical imperfections has been a part of human culture for centuries. In this comprehensive response, we will delve into the history of plastic surgery and cosmetic surgery, as well as explore different non-invasive cosmetic procedures.

A) History of Plastic Surgery:

The origins of plastic surgery can be traced back to ancient civilizations. The ancient Egyptians were known to perform reconstructive surgeries as early as 3000 BCE. They developed techniques for repairing facial injuries using a combination of herbal remedies and surgical procedures.

In India, the practice of plastic surgery can be traced back to the ancient text called the Sushruta Samhita, written around 600 BCE. Sushruta, an Indian physician, described various surgical techniques for reconstructing noses, ears, and lips. His methods involved using flaps of skin from other parts of the body to reconstruct damaged areas.

During the Renaissance period in Europe, advancements in anatomy and surgical techniques paved the way for further developments in plastic surgery. Italian surgeon Gaspare Tagliacozzi is often credited as the father of modern plastic surgery. In the late 16th century, he developed innovative techniques for reconstructing noses using skin grafts taken from the patient’s arm.

The 19th century saw significant progress in plastic surgery with the introduction of anesthesia and antiseptic techniques. This allowed surgeons to perform more complex procedures with reduced pain and risk of infection. Sir Harold Gillies, a New Zealand-born surgeon, is considered one of the pioneers of modern plastic surgery. He specialized in facial reconstruction during World War I and made significant contributions to the field.

 

B) History of Cosmetic Surgery:

Cosmetic surgery, on the other hand, focuses on enhancing aesthetic appearance rather than reconstructing physical defects. The roots of cosmetic surgery can be traced back to ancient times as well. In ancient India, cosmetic procedures such as rhinoplasty (nose reshaping) and otoplasty (ear reshaping) were performed to improve facial features.

In the early 20th century, cosmetic surgery gained popularity as advancements in anesthesia and surgical techniques made procedures safer and more accessible. The first recorded breast augmentation surgery was performed in 1895 by Austrian surgeon Vincenz Czerny. He used a patient’s own adipose tissue to augment the breasts.

The 1960s and 1970s marked a turning point for cosmetic surgery, with the introduction of silicone breast implants and liposuction. Silicone implants revolutionized breast augmentation procedures, providing more natural-looking results. Liposuction, developed by French surgeon Dr. Yves-Gerard Illouz, allowed for the removal of excess fat deposits through suction.

Since then, cosmetic surgery has continued to evolve with advancements in technology and surgical techniques. Procedures such as facelifts, tummy tucks, and eyelid surgeries have become increasingly popular. Non-invasive cosmetic procedures have also gained traction in recent years due to their minimal downtime and lower risk compared to surgical options.

 

C) Non-Invasive Cosmetic Procedures:

Non-invasive cosmetic procedures refer to treatments that do not require surgery or significant incisions. These procedures are typically performed on an outpatient basis and often involve minimal discomfort and recovery time. Here are some of the most common non-invasive cosmetic procedures:

1. Botox: Botox is a neurotoxin derived from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. It is injected into specific muscles to temporarily paralyze them, reducing the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines. Botox is commonly used to treat forehead lines, crow’s feet, and frown lines between the eyebrows.

2. Dermal Fillers: Dermal fillers are injectable substances used to restore volume and smooth out wrinkles and folds in the skin. They can be made from various materials, including hyaluronic acid, collagen, and calcium hydroxylapatite. Dermal fillers are commonly used to plump up lips, fill in nasolabial folds (smile lines), and enhance cheekbones.

3. Laser Skin Resurfacing: Laser skin resurfacing uses laser technology to improve the appearance of the skin by reducing wrinkles, scars, and pigmentation issues. The laser removes the outer layer of damaged skin, stimulating collagen production and revealing smoother, more youthful-looking skin.

Other non-invasive cosmetic procedures include chemical peels, microdermabrasion, non-surgical fat reduction treatments (such as CoolSculpting), and laser hair removal.

In conclusion, plastic surgery and cosmetic surgery have a rich history that spans thousands of years. From ancient civilizations to modern advancements in surgical techniques and non-invasive procedures, the desire to enhance one’s appearance has remained a constant throughout human history.

 

Indications, Contraindications and Method of Application of Non-Invasive Cosmetic Procedures

A) Indications:

1) Botox

  • Wrinkles and fine lines on the forehead, crow’s feet, and frown lines.
  • Hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating).
  • Migraines and tension headaches.
  • Eyelid spasms and uncontrolled blinking.
  • Crossed eyes or unstable vision.

 

2) Lasers

Wrinkles and fine lines on the face, neck, and hands.

  • Sun damage, age spots, and freckles.
  • Rosacea and redness.
  • Spider veins and port wine stains.
  • Hair removal and unwanted facial hair.

 

3) Fillers

  • Wrinkles and folds on the face, such as nasolabial folds and marionette lines.
  • Lip augmentation and correction of asymmetry.
  • Cheek augmentation and contouring.
  • Chin augmentation and correction of a receding chin.
  • Hand rejuvenation and correction of volume loss.

 

4) Micro-dermabrasion

  • Fine lines, wrinkles, and age spots on the face, neck, and hands.
  • Dull, uneven skin tone and texture.
  • Blackheads and whiteheads.
  • Mild acne and hyperpigmentation.
  • Preparation for other cosmetic procedures, such as chemical peels and laser treatments.

 

5) Chemical Peels

  • Wrinkles and fine lines on the face, neck, and hands.
  • Sun damage, age spots, and freckles.
  • Rosacea and redness.
  • Acne and blackheads.
  • Hyperpigmentation and uneven skin tone.

 

6) Laser Skin Resurfacing

  • Wrinkles and fine lines on the face, neck, and hands.
  • Sun damage, age spots, and freckles.
  • Rosacea and redness.
  • Acne and blackheads.
  • Hyperpigmentation and uneven skin tone.

 

B) Contraindications:

1) Botox

  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding.
  • Neurological disorders, such as ALS, myasthenia gravis, and multiple sclerosis.
  • Infection at the injection site.
  • Allergies to botulinum toxin or any component of the product.
  • Bleeding disorders or taking anticoagulant medications.

 

2) Lasers

  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding.
  • Skin conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, and rosacea.
  • Active cold sores or herpes simplex virus.
  • Tanned skin or recent use of self-tanning products.
  • Metal implants, such as pacemakers and dental fillings.

 

3) Fillers

  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding.
  • Skin conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, and rosacea.
  • Active cold sores or herpes simplex virus.
  • Tanned skin or recent use of self-tanning products.
  • Metal implants, such as pacemakers and dental fillings.

 

4) Micro-dermabrasion

  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding.
  • Skin conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, and rosacea.
  • Active cold sores or herpes simplex virus.
  • Tanned skin or recent use of self-tanning products.
  • Metal implants, such as pacemakers and dental fillings.

 

5) Chemical Peels

  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding.
  • Skin conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, and rosacea.
  • Active cold sores or herpes simplex virus.
  • Tanned skin or recent use of self-tanning products.
  • Metal implants, such as pacemakers and dental fillings

 

6) Laser Skin Resurfacing

  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding.
  • Skin conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, and rosacea.
  • Active cold sores or herpes simplex virus.
  • Tanned skin or recent use of self-tanning products.
  • Metal implants, such as pacemakers and dental fillings.

 

C) Method of Application:

1) Botox

  • A small amount of botulinum toxin is injected into the target area using a thin needle.
  • The procedure typically takes 10-30 minutes, depending on the number of areas being treated.
  • Results are visible within 2-4 days and last for 3-6 months.

 

2) Lasers

  • The laser is applied to the target area using a handpiece or wand.
  • The procedure typically takes 15-60 minutes, depending on the size of the area being treated.
  • Results are visible immediately and can last for several months or longer.

 

3) Fillers

  • A small amount of filler material is injected into the target area using a thin needle.
  • The procedure typically takes 15-30 minutes, depending on the number of areas being treated.
  • Results are visible immediately and can last for several months or longer.

 

4) Micro-dermabrasion

  • A small amount of crystals are applied to the target area using a special device.
  • The procedure typically takes 30-60 minutes, depending on the size of the area being treated.
  • Results are visible immediately and can last for several days or longer.

 

5) Chemical Peels

  • A solution is applied to the target area using a cotton ball or pad.
  • The procedure typically takes 15-60 minutes, depending on the depth of the peel.
  • Results are visible immediately and can last for several days or longer.

 

6) Laser Skin Resurfacing

  • A laser is applied to the target area using a handpiece or wand.
  • The procedure typically takes 15-60 minutes, depending on the size of the area being treated.
  • Results are visible immediately and can last for several months or longer

 

A review of some surgical cosmetic procedures

A) Liposuction

Liposuction is a surgical cosmetic procedure that aims to remove excess fat from specific areas of the body, such as the abdomen, thighs, arms, and neck. The procedure involves the use of a cannula, a thin, hollow tube, to suction out the excess fat. There are different types of liposuction techniques, including:

1. Traditional Liposuction: This is the most common type of liposuction, where a small incision is made in the skin to insert the cannula.

2. Tumescent Liposuction: This technique involves the use of a local anesthetic to numb the area and reduce bleeding.

3. Ultrasound-Assisted Liposuction: This technique uses ultrasonic waves to break down the fat before suctioning it out.

4. Laser-Assisted Liposuction: This technique uses a laser to liquefy the fat before suctioning it out.

 

B) Face Lift

A face lift is a surgical cosmetic procedure that aims to rejuvenate the appearance of the face by removing excess skin and tightening the underlying muscles. The procedure can be performed using different techniques, including:

1. Traditional Face Lift: This technique involves making incisions around the ears and behind the hairline to access the facial tissues.

2. Minimal Access Cranial Suspension (MACS) Face Lift: This technique involves making smaller incisions and using specialized instruments to lift and reposition the facial tissues.

3. Deep Plane Face Lift: This technique involves lifting and repositioning the deeper tissue layers of the face, including the SMAS (superficial musculo-aponeurotic system) and the platysma muscle.

 

C) Blepharoplasty

Blepharoplasty is a surgical cosmetic procedure that aims to improve the appearance of the eyelids by removing excess skin, fat, and muscle. The procedure can be performed on the upper or lower eyelids, or both. There are different techniques, including:

1. Traditional Blepharoplasty: This technique involves making incisions along the natural lines of the eyelids to remove excess skin and fat.

2. Transconjunctival Blepharoplasty: This technique involves making incisions inside the lower eyelid, avoiding the need for external incisions.

3. Laser Blepharoplasty: This technique uses a laser to remove excess skin and fat, with minimal scarring.

 

D) Fat Grafting

Fat grafting is a surgical cosmetic procedure that involves taking fat from one area of the body and transferring it to another area to improve the appearance of the skin. The procedure can be used to fill in wrinkles, folds, and scars, and to enhance the appearance of the lips, cheeks, and hands. There are different techniques, including:

1. Liposuction-Assisted Fat Grafting: This technique involves using liposuction to remove excess fat from one area of the body and then injecting it into the desired area.

2. Fat Transfer: This technique involves taking fat from one area of the body and transferring it to another area using a specialized cannula.

3. Autologous Fat Grafting: This technique involves taking fat from one area of the body and transferring it to another area using a specialized cannula.

 

E) Abdomino-Plasty

Abdomino-plasty is a surgical cosmetic procedure that aims to improve the appearance of the abdomen by removing excess skin and fat. The procedure can be performed using different techniques, including:

1. Traditional Tummy Tuck: This technique involves making an incision from hip to hip to remove excess skin and fat and tighten the abdominal muscles.

2. Mini Tummy Tuck: This technique involves making a smaller incision and removing less fat and skin.

3. Extended Tummy Tuck: This technique involves making an incision from hip to hip and removing excess skin and fat from the back as well.

Note: The information provided is for general reference only and should not be considered as medical advice. It is important to consult a qualified medical professional before undergoing any surgical cosmetic procedure.

 

Indications, complications and contraindications of common surgical cosmetic procedures

1) Liposuction

a) Indications:

  • To remove excess fat from specific areas of the body, such as the abdomen, hips, thighs, arms, and neck.
  • To improve the body’s contours and proportions.
  • To enhance self-esteem and confidence.

b) Complications:

  • Bleeding and hematoma.
  • Infection.
  • Numbness or loss of sensation in the skin or nerves.
  • Scarring.
  • Seroma (a collection of fluid at the surgical site).
  • Skin irregularities, such as unevenness or dimpling.
  • Asymmetry or unevenness of the results.

C) Contraindications:

  • Active infection or skin disease in the area to be treated.
  • Bleeding disorders or use of anticoagulant medications.
  • Previous surgery or scarring in the area to be treated.
  • Poor skin elasticity or fragility.
  • Smoking or other unhealthy lifestyle habits.

 

2) Face Lift

a) Indications:

  • To improve the appearance of the face by reducing the signs of aging, such as wrinkles, fine lines, and sagging skin.
  • To enhance self-esteem and confidence.

b) Complications:

  • Bleeding and hematoma.
  • Infection.
  • Numbness or loss of sensation in the skin or nerves.
  • Scarring.
  • Seroma (a collection of fluid at the surgical site).
  • Skin irregularities, such as unevenness or dimpling.
  • Asymmetry or unevenness of the results.

c) Contraindications:

  • Active infection or skin disease in the area to be treated.
  • Bleeding disorders or use of anticoagulant medications.
  • Previous surgery or scarring in the area to be treated.
  • Poor skin elasticity or fragility.
  • Smoking or other unhealthy lifestyle habits.

 

3) Blepharoplasty

a) Indications:

  • To improve the appearance of the eyes by reducing the signs of aging, such as drooping eyelids, puffiness, and dark circles.
  • To enhance self-esteem and confidence.

b) Complications:

  • Bleeding and hematoma.
  • Infection.
  • Numbness or loss of sensation in the skin or nerves.
  • Scarring.
  • Seroma (a collection of fluid at the surgical site).
  • Skin irregularities, such as unevenness or dimpling.
  • Asymmetry or unevenness of the results.

c) Contraindications:

  • Active infection or skin disease in the area to be treated.
  • Bleeding disorders or use of anticoagulant medications.
  • Previous surgery or scarring in the area to be treated.
  • Poor skin elasticity or fragility.
  • Smoking or other unhealthy lifestyle habits.

 

4) Fat Grafting

a) Indications:

  • To improve the appearance of the face or body by adding volume to specific areas.
  • To enhance self-esteem and confidence.

b) Complications:

  • Bleeding and hematoma.
  • Infection.
  • Numbness or loss of sensation in the skin or nerves.
  • Scarring.
  • Seroma (a collection of fluid at the surgical site).
  • Skin irregularities, such as unevenness or dimpling.
  • Asymmetry or unevenness of the results.

c) Contraindications:

  • Active infection or skin disease in the area to be treated.
  • Bleeding disorders or use of anticoagulant medications.
  • Previous surgery or scarring in the area to be treated.
  • Poor skin elasticity or fragility.
  • Smoking or other unhealthy lifestyle habits.

 

5) Abdomenoplasty

a) Indications:

  • To improve the appearance of the abdomen by reducing the signs of aging, such as loose skin, stretch marks, and fat deposits.
  • To enhance self-esteem and confidence.

b) Complications:

  • Bleeding and hematoma.
  • Infection.
  • Numbness or loss of sensation in the skin or nerves.
  • Scarring.
  • Seroma (a collection of fluid at the surgical site).
  • Skin irregularities, such as unevenness or dimpling.
  • Asymmetry or unevenness of the results.

c) Contraindications:

  • Active infection or skin disease in the area to be treated.
  • Bleeding disorders or use of anticoagulant medications.
  • Previous surgery or scarring in the area to be treated.
  • Poor skin elasticity or fragility.
  • Smoking or other unhealthy lifestyle habits.