• A. Type, Node and Mode
  • B. Tumor, Node and Metastases ✓
  • C. Type, Node and Metastases
  • D. Tumor, Node and Mode


The TNM staging system is a widely used system for staging different types of cancers based on the extent of the primary tumor (T), the involvement of regional lymph nodes (N), and the presence of distant metastases (M). This system helps clinicians determine the prognosis of the disease, plan appropriate treatment strategies, and communicate effectively about the cancer stage.

  • Tumor (T): This category describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. It may include information about how large the tumor is, whether it has invaded nearby tissues or organs, and if it has spread to surrounding structures.
  • Node (N): The node category indicates whether cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped structures that act as filters for harmful substances, including cancer cells. The presence or absence of cancer in lymph nodes can provide important information about the spread of the disease.
  • Metastases (M): Metastases refer to the spread of cancer cells from the primary tumor to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The M category helps determine if cancer has spread to distant organs or tissues beyond the primary site.

By combining these three components (T, N, M), clinicians can assign a specific stage to a cancer diagnosis, ranging from stage 0 (in situ cancer) to stage IV (advanced metastatic cancer). This staging system plays a crucial role in guiding treatment decisions, predicting patient outcomes, and facilitating communication among healthcare providers.

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