• A. Inability to produce sperm
  • B. Reduction in the amount of sperm produced
  • C. No sperm produced ✓
  • D. Defective sperm production


Azoospermia is the medical term used when there are no sperm in the ejaculate.

In other words, Azoospermia is a condition characterized by the absence of sperm in semen. It is a form of male infertility that can be classified into two main types: obstructive azoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia.

Obstructive azoospermia occurs when there is a blockage along the reproductive tract that prevents sperm from entering the ejaculate. This can be caused by various conditions such as vasectomy, infection, inflammation, or congenital abnormalities. In obstructive azoospermia, the testicles typically produce sperm normally, but the sperm cannot leave the testicles due to the blockage.

On the other hand, non-obstructive azoospermia is caused by problems with testicular structure or function, leading to decreased sperm production. This can be due to genetic factors, hormonal imbalances, varicocele, or other conditions that affect sperm production. In non-obstructive azoospermia, the testicles may produce little to no sperm.

It is important to note that azoospermia is a common cause of male infertility, affecting around 1% of all men and up to 10% of men with infertility. However, many causes of azoospermia are treatable, and it may still be possible to have biological children with the help of assisted reproductive techniques such as IVF with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

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