• CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS
    BIOLOGY

    CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS

    Plants are generally classified based on three major criteria. These are: Botanical classification. Agricultural classification. Classification based on life cycle.   BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS Plants are generally classified through the botanical method and the use of binomial system. The botanical classification has been discussed below, where the plant kingdom is divided into: Schizophyta, Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta. Read the characteristics and examples of these groups below under the sub-topic: “Kingdom plantae.”   Kingdom: Plantae The plant kingdom consists of three main divisions (Phyla). These are: Thallophyta (e.g. Green brown, red algae). Bryophyta (Liverworts and mosses). Tracheophyta (Vascular plants).   Thallophyta This group can further be subdivided into three…

  • CLASSIFICATION OF SOIL
    PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

    CLASSIFICATION OF SOIL

    Several classifications of soil types exist. The zonal classification treated here is considered most appropriate at this level. The classification relates soil to the major climatic and vegetation zones of the world. The world’s major climatic belts have their distinctive vegetation and distinctive soil types. Zonal soils are mature soils. They result from the maximum effects of climate and vegetation upon parent rock in areas where the landscape and climate have been stable for a long time. Consequently, zonal soils have had time to develop distinctive profiles and clear horizons. Some of these soil types will now be described as follows: Ferralitic Soil: These are tropical soils found in forest…

  • CLASSIFICATION OF SETTLEMENT ACCORDING TO FUNCTIONS OF TOWNS
    HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

    CLASSIFICATION OF SETTLEMENT ACCORDING TO FUNCTIONS OF TOWNS

    Towns are classified according to certain functions they perform. Certain towns may perform more than one function but some are known for a particular function as stated below: Market towns: These are mainly trading centres based on commerce e.g. Onitsha, Ibadan, Lagos, and Norwich (U.K). Industrial towns: These are involved in the manufacturing and processing of raw materials to finished goods e.g. Lagos (Nigeria), Ruhr (Germany), and Pittsburg (U.S.A). Commercial towns: These are centres of finance and commerce e.g. Kano, Lagos, New York and Zurich. Administrative towns: These are headquarters of the government and they are usually capitals cities e.g. Abuja, New York, London, Accra. Mining towns: These towns are…

  • CLASSIFICATION OF SETTLEMENT ACCORDING TO SIZE
    HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

    CLASSIFICATION OF SETTLEMENT ACCORDING TO SIZE

    The size of settlement refers to the number of people per settlement. The smallest settlement in terms of size is the homestead while the largest is megalopolis. On the basis of size, the following settlements are recognized with their characteristics.   HOMESTEAD This is a one family residence. The buildings are far from each other. It has few people with little or no opportunity for social gathering e.g. Ganda of Uganda.   HAMLET This contains two or three houses. There is lack of basic and social amenities. The settlement is nucleated. It contains people usually less than a hundred e.g. Ogoja in Cross River State.   VILLAGE This contains several…

  • CLASSIFICATION OF SETTLEMENT ACCORDING TO PATTERN OR SHAPE
    HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

    CLASSIFICATION OF SETTLEMENT ACCORDING TO PATTERN OR SHAPE

    The pattern or shape of settlement refers to the arrangement of buildings in a settlement. The main patterns of settlements include: Dispersed (scattered) settlement. Linear settlement. Nucleated or Dense settlement. Isolated settlement.   DISPERSED (SCATTERED) SETTLEMENT The buildings are scattered or far from each other. It has few social amenities. It is a feature of rural settlement. They are mainly involved in primary activities like farming, lumbering, fishing, etc. Individual compounds are widely spaced from one another. Behind the buildings, there are family parcels of lands. Distinct boundaries separate one family land from another. The farms are intensively tilled. There is quiet life style as there is little opportunity for…

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